11_Supp%2011%20Darcy

11_Supp%2011%20Darcy - Introduction In 1856 Henry Darcy a...

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2 Introduction In 1856, Henry Darcy, a French hydraulic engineer, published a report in which he described a series of experiments he had performed in an attempt to quantify the amount of water that would flow through a column of sand. The experimental apparatus used was similar to the one displayed below. FIGURE 1- Experimental apparatus for the illustration of Darcy's Law. (Adapted from Freeze, R.A. and Cherry, J.A., 1979) This was the first systematic study of the movement of water through a porous medium. In this setup, water is introduced to a soil column at a constant rate Q. Water exits the column at the same rate Q, creating a steady-state flow regime. Fluid pressure is measured at two points on the column, separated by a column distance l and a vertical distance (z 1 -z 2 ). The results of Darcy's experiments indicated that the rate at which a fluid moves through a porous medium (Q) is proportional to the difference in hydraulic head of the water along the column and the characteristics of the porous medium and the column length. This relationship is known as Darcy's law : The parameters of this equation are listed in Table 1 below:
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3 Table 1- Description of Darcy's law parameters Symbol Dim Definition During the Darcy experiment, constant head is maintained at either end of the column containing the porous medium. The discharge through the column is proportional to the change in head along the column and to the cross sectional area and inversely proportional to the length of the column.
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