SEES%20503%20-%204%20Evaporation%20and%20Evapotranspiration

SEES%20503%20-%204%20Evaporation%20and%20Evapotranspiration...

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Unformatted text preview: SEES 503 Sustainable Water Resources 1/30 Instructor Assist. Prof. Dr. Bertu Ak ntu Civil Engineering Program Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus SEES 503 SEES 503 SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES EVAPORATION EVAPORATION AND AND TRANSPIRATION TRANSPIRATION SEES 503 Sustainable Water Resources 2/30 4. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION 4. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION Introduction Evaporation: The process through which water is transferred from the surface of the Earth to the atmosphere. Evaporation is important in all areas of water resources Because it affects the capacity of the reservoir, the yield of river basin, the consumptive use of water by plants . etc. In this chapter, Evaporation: the water vaporization from the open water surfaces. Transpiration: the water loss from the plants, through the pores at the surface of their leaves. Evapotranspiration: Evaporation + Transpiration SEES 503 Sustainable Water Resources 3/30 4. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION 4. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION Overview Factors Effecting Evaporation Meteorological factors The Nature of the Evaporating Surface Measurement of Evaporation Methods of Estimation of Evaporation Water Budget (Storage Equation) Approach Energy Budget Method Panman (Combination) Method Estimation of Evapotranspiration Blaney Criddle Method Thornthwaite Method SEES 503 Sustainable Water Resources 4/30 4. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION 4. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION Factors Effecting Evaporation Meteorological Factors Solar radiation: Evaporation is a process of energy exchange. Solar radiation supply the energy necessary for the liquid water molecules to evaporate. Relative humidity: As the humidity of air increase its ability to absorb more water vapor decreases, and the rate of evaporation becomes slower. The temperature of air : Temperature increase saturation vapor pressure (increases saturation deficit), High temperature implies that there is energy available for evaporation. SEES 503 Sustainable Water Resources 5/30 4. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION 4. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION Factors Effecting Evaporation Meteorological Factors Wind: As the liquid water vaporizes from a water body, the air adjacent to this body will be saturated. For the continuation of evaporation, this saturated air should be removed. This is possible by wind. 10% change in the wind speed 1-3% change in evaporation. Atmospheric Pressure: An increase in atmospheric pressure prevents the movement of molecules out of water. SEES 503 Sustainable Water Resources 6/30 4. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION 4. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION Factors Effecting Evaporation The Nature of the Evaporating Surface Important factors affecting the evaporation from different surfaces: Temperature of liquid water: (High liquid water temp.) (High liquid water temp....
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SEES%20503%20-%204%20Evaporation%20and%20Evapotranspiration...

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