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earthScienceHomework - Chapter Minerals: Building Blocks of...

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. ―Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks‖ begins with an explanation of the difference between rocks and minerals. The brief comparison is followed by a formal definition of a mineral. Elements, atoms, compounds, ions, and atomic bonding are discussed. Also investigated are isotopes and radioactivity. Following descriptions of the properties used in mineral identification, the silicate and nonsilicate mineral groups are examined. The chapter concludes with a presentation of mineral resources, reserves, and ores. Learning Objectives After reading, studying, and discussing the chapter, students should be able to identify The difference between a mineral and a rock. What atoms are, their structure, and how they combine. Isotopes and radioactivity. How to compare and contrast the different types of chemical bonding. The physical properties of minerals and how they can be used for mineral identification. The basic composition and structures of the silicate minerals. The importance and uses of some nonsilicate minerals. Mineral resources, reserves, and ores. Chapter Outline ___________________________________________________________________ I. Minerals: The building blocks of rocks A. Mineral: definition 1. Naturally occurring 2. Inorganic 3. Solid 4. Orderly internal structure 5. Definite chemical structure II. Composition and structure of minerals A. Elements B. Atom—the smallest particle of matter III. How atoms are constructed A. Nucleus 1. Protons 2. Neutrons B. Electrons in energy levels, or shells C. Atomic number—number of protons D. Bonding of atoms 1. Compound—two or more elements 2. Ions—atoms that gain or lose electrons E. Isotopes—varying number of neutrons 1. Mass number—sum of neutrons and protons 2. Radioactive decay—emission of energy and particles IV. Minerals A. Properties of minerals 1. Crystal form 2. Luster 3. Color 4. Streak 5. Hardness 6. Cleavage 7. Fracture 8. Specific gravity 9. Other a. Taste Chapter 1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks
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b. Smell c. Elasticity d. Malleability e. Feel f. Magnetism g. Double refraction h. Reaction to hydrochloric acid B. Mineral groups 1. Silicate minerals a. Most common mineral group b. Silicon–oxygen tetrahedron 1. Independent 2. Arranged in chains 3. Arranged in sheets 4. Three-dimensional arrangement c. Feldspars most plentiful group d. Crystallize from molten material 2. Nonsilicate minerals a. Major groups 1. Oxides 2. Sulfides 3. Sulfates 4. Halides 5. Carbonates 6. "Native" elements b. Carbonates 1. Major rock-forming group 2. Found in limestone and marble c. Halite and gypsum—found in sedimentary rocks d. Many have economic value C. Mineral resources 1. Reserves—profitable, identified deposits 2. Ores—metallic minerals that can be mined at a profit 3. Economic factors may change Answers to the Review Questions 1. In order to be considered a mineral, a substance must exhibit the following characteristics: (1) be naturally occurring, (2) be solid, 3) possess an orderly crystalline structure, (4) have definite chemical composition, and (5) be generally inorganic.
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This note was uploaded on 12/25/2010 for the course ESC 1000 taught by Professor Faculty during the Fall '10 term at FAU.

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earthScienceHomework - Chapter Minerals: Building Blocks of...

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