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Unformatted text preview: Landscapes Fashioned by Water Water Water Water Water is everywhere on Earth Primarily located in the hydrosphere (oceans, lakes, rivers, etc.) Water (cont.) Water 97% 97% of the water on Earth is stored in the oceans oceans A bulk of the non-ocean water is located in bulk glaciers (about 2.1%) glaciers A smaller percentage is found in smaller groundwater, freshwater lakes, soil, and the atmosphere the Water Water can exist in three physical states: solid, liquid, or gas solid, Water is constantly moving in the Water hydrosphere. hydrosphere. Energy from the sun evaporates the water Energy from the oceans into the atmosphere from Water is moving throughout the four Water “spheres” of the earth “spheres” Water cycle Water The The continuous movement of water throughout the Earth is called the water cycle cycle The movement of this water is powered by The the energy of the sun the Some key points of the water cycle cycle Water Water evaporates from the ocean and continents into the atmosphere continents Cloud formation takes place, which leads Cloud to precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, etc.) to On the solid earth, some of the water is On absorbed by the soil, the remainder flows as lakes or streams as Some Some of the water in the ground is absorbed by plants, then released into the atmosphere (transpiration) atmosphere In very cold places, the water become part In of a snowfield or a glacier of The water cycle is balanced The water cycle is the continuous The movement of water from the oceans to the atmosphere, from the atmosphere to the land, and from the land back to the sea land, Groundwater Groundwater This is water which lies underground Groundwater results after precipitation Groundwater soaks into the ground soaks Groundwater is stored in rocks and Groundwater sediments beneath the Earth’s surface sediments Groundwater makes up less than one Groundwater percent of all of Earth’s water percent Groundwater Groundwater is the largest reservoir of freshwater that is readily available to humans humans Wells and springs provide groundwater for Wells cities, crops, livestock, and industry cities, In the U.S., groundwater is the source of In about 40% of the water used for all purposes purposes Groundwater Groundwater is the drinking water for more than 50% of the population, 40% of the water for irrigation, and 25% of industry’s needs industry’s Distribution and Movement of groundwater groundwater During During rainfall, some of the water runs off, some evaporates to the atmosphere, and the remainder soaks into the ground the The amount of water that takes each of The these paths varies greatly from time to time or from place to place time Distribution of Groundwater Distribution Some Some water is held by the molecular attraction as a surface film on soil particles attraction Water that is not held as soil moisture Water penetrates downward until it reaches where all the pores of sediment or rock is completely filled with water (zone of saturation) saturation) Distribution of groundwater (cont.) (cont.) The The upper limit of the zone of aeration is called the water table called The area above the water table is called The the zone of aeration the In this zone, soil, sediment, or rock is not In saturated saturated Groundwater movement Groundwater Movement Movement of most groundwater is exceedingly slow, from pore to pore exceedingly Two factors which movement of Two groundwater: porosity and permeability groundwater: Porosity & permeability Porosity Porosity: Porosity: percentage of the total volume of rock or sediment that consists of pore spaces spaces Permeability: this is the ability of a Permeability: material to transmit water. material Aquitards & aquifers Aquitards Aquitards: Aquitards: these are inpermeable layers that hinder or prevent water movement (example: clay) (example: Aquifers : permeable rock or strata or Aquifers sediments that transmit groundwater freely sediments An aquifer is any body of rock or soil that An can yield economically significant quantities of water quantities Environmental problems of groundwater groundwater Groundwater Groundwater is being exploited at an increasing rate increasing In some places, overuse threatens the In water supply, in other places, there is a problem of groundwater withdrawal, and other places, problems of water contamination persist contamination Groundwater contamination Groundwater Groundwater Groundwater can be polluted in a variety of ways of One common source of groundwater One pollution is sewage emanating from an increasingly large number of septic tanks. increasingly Other sources: inadequate or broken Other sewage systems and farm wastes sewage ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/25/2010 for the course ESC 1000 taught by Professor Faculty during the Fall '10 term at FAU.
- Fall '10