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Unformatted text preview: Minerals Minerals Minerals Minerals Mineral: Mineral: A naturally occurring, inorganic naturally solid that has a definite structure and a solid definite definite chemical composition chemical Characteristics of minerals Characteristics Naturally Solid Orderly occurring crystalline structure Definite chemical composition Inorganic (usually does not contain Inorganic carbon, especially carbon linked in chains and rings) and Rocks Rocks Rock: Rock: A solid mineral which consists of aggregates (mixtures) of two or more minerals minerals Elements & Atoms Elements The The building blocks of all minerals are called elements called Elements consists of smaller particles Elements called atoms called Atom: Smallest particle of an element that Atom: retains the same characteristics as that element element Elements & Atoms (cont.) Elements Element: Element: a substance that cannot be decomposed by any ordinary chemical or physical means physical An element consists of one type of atom An one type Examples: iron, gold, silver, copper, Examples: carbon, etc. carbon, The structure of the Atom The Consists Consists of protons, neutrons, and electrons electrons Protons and neutrons are located in the Protons nucleus nucleus Electrons are spinning about the nucleus Electrons are located in various distances Electrons away from the nucleus, into regions called energy levels (shells) energy Structure of the atom (cont.) Structure Number Number of protons give the atomic number of each element number In a free (electrically neutral) atom, the In number of protons and the number of electrons are the same electrons Elements combine with each other in Elements order to form compounds compounds Compounds Compounds Compounds Compounds are two or more different elements that combine in fixed, whole fixed, number ratios number Elements can combine with other Elements elements to form compounds by gaining or losing, or sharing electrons losing, Examples: water, table salt(sodium Examples: chloride), sugar,etc. chloride), Ions Ions When When elements gain or lose electrons, the atom is no longer neutral and forms an ion ion An ion can have either a positive charge An positive or a negative charge negative charge Isotopes Isotopes These These are atoms that have the same number of protons, but different number of but neutrons neutrons Isotopes have a characteristic atomic Isotopes number (number of protons) and mass number (number of protons and neutrons) number Examples: carbon-12 and carbon-14 Properties of Minerals Properties Crystalline: internal arrangement of atoms Luster: The appearance due to quality of The light reflected light Color Streak (can be obtained by rubbing material on a hard surface material Hardness: Resistance to abrasion or Resistance scratching scratching Cleavage/Fracture Cleavage and fracture Cleavage Cleavage: Cleavage: Tendency of a mineral to cleave (break) along planes of weak bonding bonding Fracture: Break or rupture along which no Fracture: appreciable movement has taken place appreciable Properties of minerals (cont.) Properties Specific gravity: Comparison of the weight Comparison of mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water volume Other properties Other Halite (table salt) taste salty Mica: Gold is malleable (can be Mica: hammered into thin sheets) hammered Graphite: Feels greasy Elements in earth’s crust Elements Most common element is oxygen(46.6%) Second most common element is silicon Second (27.7%) (27.7%) Other elements are aluminum, iron, Other calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium magnesium Mineral Groups Mineral Silicates (silicon and oxygen) Carbonates (carbon, oxygen, plus other Carbonates elements) elements) Silicates Silicates Consists of a silicon-oxygen tetrahedron Elements that can join this structure are Elements iron, magnesium, sodium, potassium, etc. iron, Most abundant silicate minerals are the Most feldspars and quartz feldspars Carbonates Carbonates Contains Major Major the mineral calcite (CaCO3) constituent of two well known rocks: limestone and marble Limestone is used primarily in road Limestone paving. The main ingredient in Portland cement cement Marble is used decoratively (in building Marble monuments, etc.) ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/25/2010 for the course ESC 1000 taught by Professor Faculty during the Fall '10 term at FAU.
- Fall '10