08_Evolution_Lab - Natural Selection and Evolution...

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Natural Selection and Evolution Objectives – At the end of today’s lab you should be able to Understand how natural selection leads to evolutionary change. Practice hypothesis testing using statistics Perform a chi-squared test to assess the significance of any observed difference in allele or genotypic frequency. Introduction When there is genetic variation in a population, some individuals are better fit, or suited, to their environment. As a result, individuals with this advantageous trait will be more likely to survive and reproduce compared to less fit individuals. If the variation is genetic, this trait will be passed on to individuals in the next generation. Over time, the population will increasingly consist of individuals that have inherited the successful trait. This change in population genetics over time is called evolution and because the environment is selecting for certain traits the mechanism is called natural selection . We will be simulating various forms of natural selection in today’s lab. Hypotheses We start any scientific experiment by proposing an, hypothesis. This can be an explanation or a prediction of what we think will happ0en. Read over the directions below first, so that you understand the procedure. Prediction: Describe what you think will happen to the population after five generations? (Describe both the phenotype and genotype of the population.) From this prediction, you can determine your hypothesis. In order to test our hypothesis using statistics, we need to have a pair of hypotheses: the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis . Null Hypothesis : the null hypothesis states that there is no difference between our experimental and control groups. In today’s experiment, that there will be no difference in our starting population’s allele frequency and our ending population’s allele frequency. Null Hypothesis:
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08_Evolution_Lab - Natural Selection and Evolution...

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