psychological_science - PsychologicalScience...

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Psychological Science Definitions of Psychology *1920s: The science of mental life *1920s-1960s: The science of observable behavior *Now: The science of behavior and mental process *Behavior: anything that an organism does *Mental processes: internal subjective experiences we infer from behavior – sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs feelings Pre-scientific Psychology *It all started with the philosophers *Aristotle: knowledge is not pre-existing, but develops from experiences *Descartes: the brain contains “animal spirits” *John Locke: the mind at birth is a blank slate on which experience writes *Led to empiricism = knowledge originates in experience and science should therefore rely on observation and experimentation Psychology as Science *Wilhelm Wundt *The “father of psychology” *Noticed it took people longer to press the key when they were asked to do so when they were aware of perceiving the sound vs. as soon as the sound occurred *Structuralism *Aimed to discover elements of the mind *Used introspection to discover elements of experience *Functionalism *William James: *Influenced by Darwin, James believed that thinking developed because it was adaptive (it contributed to survival)
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psychological_science - PsychologicalScience...

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