states_of_consciousness - *Consciousness*our awareness of...

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Unformatted text preview: *Consciousness *our awareness of ourselves and our environments *Selective Attention *focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus *This is why it is so dangerous and annoying to drive while talking on your cell phone! phone! *Example of change blindness due to selective attention Examples of Change Blindness and Inattentional Blindness * * Sleep and Dreams Sleep *Circadian Rhythm Circadian *the biological clock *regular bodily rhythms, such as of wakefulness and body temperature, that occur on a 24-hour cycle occur *Sleep *periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness *Sleep Stages *About every 90-100 minutes during sleep we go through 5 sleep stages Sleep and Dreams *Measuring sleep activity Brain Waves and Sleep Stages *Alpha Waves *slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain *Delta Waves *llarge, slow waves of deep sleep arge, *Hallucinations *false sensory experiences false Stages of Sleep Stages *Sleep stage 1 - brief transition stage when first falling asleep *Stages 2 through 4 (slow-wave sleep) - successively deeper stages of sleep *Characterized by an increasing percentage of slow, irregular, high-amplitude delta waves delta Sleep and Dreams *REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep REM *recurring sleep stage recurring *vivid dreams *“paradoxical sleep” “paradoxical *muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active Stages of Sleep *Upon reaching stage 4 and after about 80 to 100 minutes of total sleep time, sleep lightens, returns through stages 3 and 2 sleep States of Consciousness States What is Consciousness? *REM sleep emerges, characterized by EEG patterns that resemble beta waves of alert wakefulness of *muscles most relaxed *rapid eye movements occur *dreams occur *Four or five sleep cycles occur in a typical night’s sleep - less time is spent in slow-wave, more is spent in REM slow-wave, Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep Functions of Sleep *Restoration theory Restoration *body wears out during the day and sleep is necessary to put it back in shape *Preservation and protection theory Preservation *sleep emerged in evolution to preserve energy during the time of day when there is little value and considerable danger there Sleep Deprivation *Effects of Sleep Loss *fatigue *impaired concentration *depressed immune system *greater vulnerability to accidents Sleep Deprivation Sleep Debt Score Sleep Disorders *Insomnia *persistent problems in falling or staying asleep *Narcolepsy *uncontrollable sleep attacks; overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up while *Sleep Apnea *temporary cessation of breathing during sleep *momentary reawakenings *Somnambulism Somnambulism *sleepwalking Night Terrors and Nightmares *Nightmares Nightmares *frightening dreams that wake a sleeper from REM *Night Terrors *sudden arousal from sleep and intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (e.g., rapid heart rate, perspiration) *occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4 *seldom remembered Dreams *Dream *sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind person’s *hallucinatory imagery *discontinuities *incongruities *delusional acceptance of the content *difficulty remembering *occurs several times over the course of the night *true dream - vivid, detailed dreams consisting of sensory and motor sensations experienced during REM sensations *sleep thought - lacks vivid sensory and motor sensations, is more similar to daytime thinking, and occurs during slow-wave sleep daytime Dreams: Freud *Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) *wish fulfillment wish *discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings *Latent Content *underlying meaning *Manifest Content *remembered story line, remembered *a censored symbolic version of the latent content Other Theories on Dreams *As Information Processing *helps facilitate memories *As a Physiological Function *periodic brain stimulation *REM Rebound *REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation Sleep Across the Lifespan Hypnosis *Hypnosis *a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will (the spontaneously occur spontaneously Hypnosis *Posthypnotic Amnesia *supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis *induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion Will hypnosis work on anyone? *Hypnotists engage people’s ability to focus on certain behaviors or images, the more open the subject is to suggestion the easier the hypnosis will be more *Some people are more hypnotically susceptible than others, these people generally have rich fantasy lives and are easily absorbed into books or movies generally Can hypnosis help you remember the past or forgotten events? Can *People in age regression act how they think a child of that age would act, but out perform them by doing things better than a child of that age would out Can hypnosis make you do things you don’t want to do? *Orne & Evans (1965) *hypnotized group told to dip hand in fake acid, then throw the “acid” in assistant’s face assistant’s *control group instructed to “pretend” *unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones Can hypnosis be used for therapy? *Posthypnotic Suggestion Posthypnotic *suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized *used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors *positive suggestions can have the same effect Can hypnosis alleviate pain? *Yes! *Dissociation *a split in levels of consciousness *allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others *Hidden Observer *Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis such Explaining Hypnosis Drugs and Consciousness *Psychoactive Drug *a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood *Physical Dependence Physical *physiological need for a drug *marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms *Psychological Dependence *a psychological need to use a drug *for example, to relieve negative emotions Dependence and Addiction *Tolerance *diminishing effect with regular use *Withdrawal *discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use discomfort Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive *Depressants *drugs that reduce neural activity * alcohol, barbiturates, opiates *slow body functions slow Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive *Alcohol *affects motor skills, judgment, and memory *reduces self awareness *Barbiturates *drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment anxiety Psychoactive Drugs *Opiates *opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) *opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety *highly addictive Psychoactive Drugs *Stimulants *drugs that excite neural activity drugs *caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine caffeine, *speed up body functions The Physiological Effects of Nicotine Psychoactive Drugs *Amphetamines *drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes associated *caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, and Ecstasy Psychoactive Drugs *Cocaine *effects depend on dosage, form, expectations, personality and situation *coca leaves *powder *crack crack Cocaine Euphoria and Crash Cocaine Psychoactive Drugs *Ecstasy *MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine) *stimulant and mild hallucinogen *dangerous short and long term effects Psychoactive Drugs *Hallucinogens *psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input sensory *LSD *MDMA (Ecstasy) Psychoactive Drugs *LSD LSD *lysergic acid diethylamide *a powerful hallucinogenic drug *also known as acid *THC *the major active ingredient in marijuana *triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations Near-Death Experiences *Near-Death Experience *an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death *often similar to drug-induced hallucinations ...
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