Memory - Memory *Memory *persistence of learning over time...

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Memory *Memory *persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information *Flashbulb Memory *a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event Information Processing *Similar to a computer write to file *save to disk *read from disk *Encoding the processing of information into the memory system Information Processing *Storage *the retention of encoded information over time *Retrieval *process of getting information out of memory Three Stage Processing Model *Information is stored as *Sensory Memory *the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system *Working Memory *focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information Three Stage Processing Model *Then it is processed into a: *Short-Term Memory *activated memory that holds a few items briefly *look up a phone number, then quickly dial before the information is forgotten
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*Finally the info is encoded for the: *Long-Term Memory *the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system A Simplified Memory Model Encoding - Getting Information In Encoding *Automatic Processing *unconscious encoding of incidental information *space *time *frequency *well-learned information *word meanings *we can learn automatic processing *reading backwards *Examples: *What did you eat for lunch today? *Was the last time you studied during the day or night? *You know the meanings of these very words you are reading. Are you actively trying to process the definition of the words? Encoding *Effortful Processing •Requires attention and conscious effort *Examples: •Memorizing your notes for your upcoming Introduction to Psychology exams *Repeating a phone number in your head until you can write it down *Rehearsal *conscious repetition of information •to maintain it in consciousness *to encode it for storage Rehearsing and Encoding * Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables *TUV ZOF GEK WAV *the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions to relearn on Day 2
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*Spacing Effect *distributed practice yields better long- term retention than massed practice Encoding Encoding - Serial Position Effect Encoding •Imagery •mental pictures *a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding •Mnemonics •memory aids *especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and
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Memory - Memory *Memory *persistence of learning over time...

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