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language_and_cognition -...

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Language and Cognition Thinking *Cognition *mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and  communicating  *Cognitive Psychologists *study these mental activities *concept formation *problem solving *decision making *judgment formation Thinking *Concept  *mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people *Prototype *mental image or best example of a category *matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method  for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered  creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin) Problem Solving *Algorithm *methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular  problem *contrasts with the usually speedier–but also more error-prone--use of  heuristics Problem Solving *Heuristic *simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve  problems efficiently *usually speedier than  algorithms   *more error-prone than  algorithms Problem Solving Unscramble S P L O Y O C H Y G *Algorithm
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*all 907,208 combinations *Heuristic *throw out all YY combinations *other heuristics? Problem Solving *Insight *sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem *contrasts with strategy-based solutions *Confirmation Bias *tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions *Fixation *inability to see a problem from a new perspective *impediment to problem solving Jokes and Insight *“What occurs once in every minute, twice every moment, yet never in a  thousand years?” *Answer: The letter M *“A man left home one morning. He turned right and ran straight ahead. Then he  turned left. After a while, he turned left again, running faster than ever. Then  he turned left once more and decided to go home. In the distance he could see  two masked men waiting for him. Who were they?
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