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Unformatted text preview: *Intelligence *ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations to *Alfred Binet (1857-1914) *Father of intelligence testing Intelligence Testing *Mental Age *a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet *chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance performance *child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8 age Origins of Intelligence Testing *Stanford-Binet *the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test *revised by Terman at Stanford University *http://www.historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5293 Origins of Intelligence Testing Origins *Intelligence Quotient (IQ) *defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 *IQ = ma/ca x 100 IQ ma/ca *on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 score *About 2/3 of all people score between 85 and 115 Interesting facts about IQ *IQ is not influenced by birth order *IQ is related to breast feeding: breast fed children appear to have an IQ of 3-8 points higher by age 3 points *IQ evens out with age *IQ is correlated with head size, although weakly *IQ is going up: IQ has risen about 20 points with every generation, this is attributed to better nutrition, more schooling, and better educated parents attributed *IQ may be influenced by school cafeteria menu IQ Does intelligence have many different components? Does *Factor Analysis *statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test on *used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score score *General Intelligence (g) *factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities *measured by every task on an intelligence test Intelligence Intelligence What is Intelligence *Savant Syndrome *condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill exceptional *computation computation *Drawing *Example: Upon hearing Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto No. 1 for the first Example: Upon time in his teen years, Leslie played it back flawlessly and without time hesitation. He can do the same with any other piece of music, no matter hesitation. how long or complex. Leslie is severely mentally handicapped and blind, how and he has cerebral palsy. and Are There Multiple Intelligences? *Social Intelligence *the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully oneself *Emotional Intelligence (EQ) *ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions *Creativity *the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas *Expertise *A well-developed base of knowledge *imaginative thinking skills *Ability to see things in new ways *venturesome personality *Tolerant of ambiguity and risk *intrinsic motivation *Motivation derived primarily from the interest, enjoyment and satisfaction and challenge of the work itself satisfaction *creative environment Assessing Intelligence *Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) *most widely used intelligence test *subtests *verbal verbal *performance (nonverbal) performance WAIS WAIS Assessing Intelligence *Aptitude Test *a test designed to predict a person’s future performance *aptitude is the capacity to learn *SAT *Achievement Test *a test designed to assess what a person has learned *In class exam Intelligence and Creativity Are There Multiple Intelligences? *Intelligence Tests must be found to be: Standardized, Reliable, and Valid Assessing Intelligence *Standardization *defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group” *Normal Curve Normal *the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes physical *most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes extremes The Normal Curve Assessing Intelligence *Reliability *the extent to which a test yields consistent results *assessed by consistency of scores on: *two halves of the test (split-half) *alternate forms of the test *Retesting (test-retest) *Validity *the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to Assessing Intelligence *Content Validity *the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest the *driving test that samples driving tasks *Criterion *behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict to *the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity Assessing Intelligence *Predictive Validity *success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict *assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior behavior *also called criterion-related validity The Dynamics of Intelligence *Mental Retardation *a condition of limited mental ability *indicated by an intelligence score below 70 *produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life *varies from mild to profound *Down Syndrome *retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup chromosome The Dynamics of Intelligence Genetic Influences *The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores *Heritability *the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to the variation genes genes *variability depends on range of populations and environments studied Genetic Influences Environmental Influences *The Schooling Effect Group Differences *The Mental Rotation Test The Group Differences Group *Are intelligence tests biased? *Stereotype Threat *A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype stereotype *Self-fulfilling prophecy Genetic Influences Genetic ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2010 for the course PSYCH 1A taught by Professor Kerrihogue during the Fall '10 term at Santa Rosa.
- Fall '10