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Motivation - *Motivation*a need or desire that energizes...

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Unformatted text preview: *Motivation *a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior *Instinct *complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned Four Perspectives on Motivation *Instinct theory or evolutionary perspective *Drive­reduction theory: emphasizes the interaction between inner pushes and external pulls *Arousal theory: emphasizes that urge for an optimum level of stimulation *Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Drive-Reduction Theory *A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need *Homeostasis *tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state *regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level *Incentive *a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior Arousal Theory *We are driven by a need for stimulation or to reduce stimulation *Curiosity *Adrenaline junkies *Not enough stimulation causes boredom and too much causes stress Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs *Begins at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied *Then higher­level safety needs become active *then psychological needs become active Hunger as a Motivation *Stomach contractions accompany our feelings of hunger Hunger as a Motivation *Glucose *the form of sugar that circulates in the blood *provides the major source of energy for body tissues *when its level is low, we feel hunger Hunger as a Motivation Motivation Motivation *Set Point *the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set *when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight *Basal Metabolic Rate *body’s base rate of energy expenditure Hunger as a Motivation *The hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions Hunger as a Motivation *Other stimuli that act on the brain to increase or decrease hunger include: *satiety signals from the stomach *signals indicating the amount of food molecules in the blood *leptin, a hormone indicating the amount of fat in the body Research on Weight Regulation and Dieting *No consistent personality trait differences found between obese and non­obese people (e.g., willpower, anxiety) *Dieters and obese are more likely to eat in response to stress than non­dieters *Family environment of little importance in determining body weight ­ genetics plays a large role *Number of fat­storage cells is a major determinant of body weight Weight Control *Effects of a severe diet Eating Disorders *Anorexia Nervosa *when a normal­weight person diets and becomes significantly (>15%) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve *usually an adolescent female *Bulimia Nervosa *disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high­calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise Sexual Motivation *Sexual Response Cycle *the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson *Excitement *Plateau *Orgasm *Resolution *Estrogen *a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males *in nonhuman females, levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity *Testosterone *most important of the male sex hormones *both males and females have it, but the extra testosterone in males stimulates growth of sex organs in the fetus and development of the male sex characteristics during puberty Sex Drive *Increased production of testosterone and estrogen at puberty is responsible for physical differentiation *Increased secretion of DHEA, primary adrenal sex hormone, is responsible for sexual feelings Male Sex Drive *Testosterone maintains sex drive in adult males *castration decreases drive *testosterone injections or implantation to medial preoptic area of hypothalamus restores drive Female Sex Drive *Estrous cycle controls drive in nonhuman mammals *removal of ovaries abolishes drive, while hormone injections restore it *Also, lesions to ventromedial area of hypothalamus abolish drive, while injection or implantation restores drive Female Sex Drive *Female monkeys and apes depend less on hormones for sexual behavior *Human female sex drive may not be consistently affected by hormone cycle at all *ovarian hormones play small role *adrenal hormones like DHEA and testosterone play larger role Psychology of Sex *External Stimuli *Arousal from outside stimuli, visual, physical, etc *Imagined Stimuli *Imagination can influence arousal Sexual Motivation & Hormones Sexual * www.kinseyinstitute.org Survey of sexual behavior conducted in 1948 and 1953 Who wrote these lyrics? According to the Kinsey Report Ev'ry average girl you know Much prefers her lovely doggie to court When the temperature is low, But when the thermometer goes 'way up And the weather is sizzling hot, Mister Adam For his madam. Is not, 'Cause it's too, too Too darn hot, It's too darn hot, It's too darn hot. Changing Social Norms for Childbearing Changing *Births to unwed parents *Culture can have an effect on attitudes towards sexual behavior Teen Pregnancy & the Reasons for Lack of Contraception Use *Ignorance *Guilt related to sexual activity *Limited communication about birth control *Alcohol use *Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity Human Sexual Orientation *Orientation is an early­emerging, ingrained aspect of the self that probably does not change *No consistent relationship between orientation and childhood experiences (e.g., parenting, abuse, sexual experience) *Controversial findings suggest a possible relationship among prenatal stress, androgens, and the development of brain systems that play a role in sexual Forces Affecting Sexual Motivation Forces According to the Kinsey Report… attraction attraction Sexual Orientation Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Motivation to Belong *Aids survival: attachment *Wanting to belong: having a group that you bond with *To avoid rejection we try to conform to be accepted by a group *Maintain relationships: try to stay connected with people you formed a group with even if that group was based on random chance *Fear of being alone: solitary confinement *Boosting Health: people with close supportive relationships have better health and have a lower risk of psychological disorder and death Achievement Motivation *a desire for significant accomplishment *for mastery of things, people, or ideas *for attaining a high standard ...
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