personality_traits

personality_traits - *Trait Trait *a relatively stable...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: *Trait Trait *a relatively stable predisposition to behave in a certain way *a characteristic pattern of behavior *a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports reports *Goal of trait theories is to specify a set of distinct personality dimensions for use in summarizing fundamental psychological differences in The Trait Perspective *Personality Inventory Personality *a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and people behaviors behaviors *used to assess selected personality traits The Trait Perspective *Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) *the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests *originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use) appropriate *now used for many other screening purposes The Trait Perspective *Empirically Derived Test *a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups discriminate *such as the MMPI The Trait Perspective *Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test profile Trait Theories *Surface traits - linked directly to a set of related behaviors *Central traits - fundamental dimensions of personality Early Trait Theories *Cattell’s sixteen source traits *Eysenck’s three dimensional theory *uses two primary personality factors as axes for describing personality variation variation Big-Five Theory *Neuroticism-stability *Extroversion-introversion *Openness to experience-nonopenness *Agreeableness-antagonism *Conscientiousness-undirectedness The Big Five The Predictive Value of Traits Predictive *Stability of personality Personality Traits Personality Trait Theories *Relationship to actual behaviors *Situation-specific traits *do your personality characteristics change depending on the situation? Biological Foundations Biological of Traits of *Level of arousal and motivational systems of extroverts and introverts *Moderate heritability of traits *Genetic influences on neurotransmitters that can affect personality Personality as Adaptation *Advantages of being different *diversity of offspring *occupying alternative niches *Family environment *sibling contrast *birth order differences *Gender differences Social-Cognitive Perspective *Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their social context social *Based on research on learning, cognition, and social influence *Focuses on beliefs and habits that increase or decrease people’s ability to take control of their lives and accomplish goals control Social-Cognitive Perspective *Locus of Control *proposed by Julian Rotter *belief that rewards either are or are not controllable by one’s own efforts *may be internal or external *Personal Control *our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless *External Locus of Control External *the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s fate determine *Internal Locus of Control Internal *the perception that one controls one’s own fate *Learned Helplessness Learned *the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events unable Social-Cognitive Perspective *Learned Helplessness Social-Cognitive Perspective *Self-Efficacy *proposed by Albert Bandura *belief about one’s ability to perform specific tasks *can be high or low Social-Cognitive Perspective *Reciprocal Determinism Reciprocal *the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors Social-Cognitive Perspective Social-Cognitive Perspective Social-Cognitive Perspective Social-Cognitive *Positive Psychology *the scientific study of optimal human functioning *aims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive communities Exploring the Self *Spotlight Effect *overestimating others noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders and *Self Esteem *one’s feelings of high or low self-worth *Self-Serving Bias *readiness to perceive oneself favorably Self-Serving Bias *O.J. Simpson *Bill Clinton *Princess Diana *Michael Jordan *Mother Teresa *Yourself *19% said Yes *52% said Yes *60% said Yes *65% said Yes *79% said Yes *87% said Yes Exploring the Self *Individualism Individualism *giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications in *Collectivism *giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly work Exploring the Self ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 12/21/2010 for the course PSYCH 1A taught by Professor Kerrihogue during the Fall '10 term at Santa Rosa.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online