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Unformatted text preview: *Trait Trait *a relatively stable predisposition to behave in a certain way *a characteristic pattern of behavior *a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports reports *Goal of trait theories is to specify a set of distinct personality dimensions for use in summarizing fundamental psychological differences in The Trait Perspective *Personality Inventory Personality *a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and people behaviors behaviors *used to assess selected personality traits The Trait Perspective *Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) *the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests *originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use) appropriate *now used for many other screening purposes The Trait Perspective *Empirically Derived Test *a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups discriminate *such as the MMPI The Trait Perspective *Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test profile Trait Theories *Surface traits - linked directly to a set of related behaviors *Central traits - fundamental dimensions of personality Early Trait Theories *Cattell’s sixteen source traits *Eysenck’s three dimensional theory *uses two primary personality factors as axes for describing personality variation variation Big-Five Theory *Neuroticism-stability *Extroversion-introversion *Openness to experience-nonopenness *Agreeableness-antagonism *Conscientiousness-undirectedness The Big Five The Predictive Value of Traits Predictive *Stability of personality Personality Traits Personality Trait Theories *Relationship to actual behaviors *Situation-specific traits *do your personality characteristics change depending on the situation? Biological Foundations Biological of Traits of *Level of arousal and motivational systems of extroverts and introverts *Moderate heritability of traits *Genetic influences on neurotransmitters that can affect personality Personality as Adaptation *Advantages of being different *diversity of offspring *occupying alternative niches *Family environment *sibling contrast *birth order differences *Gender differences Social-Cognitive Perspective *Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their social context social *Based on research on learning, cognition, and social influence *Focuses on beliefs and habits that increase or decrease people’s ability to take control of their lives and accomplish goals control Social-Cognitive Perspective *Locus of Control *proposed by Julian Rotter *belief that rewards either are or are not controllable by one’s own efforts *may be internal or external *Personal Control *our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless *External Locus of Control External *the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s fate determine *Internal Locus of Control Internal *the perception that one controls one’s own fate *Learned Helplessness Learned *the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events unable Social-Cognitive Perspective *Learned Helplessness Social-Cognitive Perspective *Self-Efficacy *proposed by Albert Bandura *belief about one’s ability to perform specific tasks *can be high or low Social-Cognitive Perspective *Reciprocal Determinism Reciprocal *the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors Social-Cognitive Perspective Social-Cognitive Perspective Social-Cognitive Perspective Social-Cognitive *Positive Psychology *the scientific study of optimal human functioning *aims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive communities Exploring the Self *Spotlight Effect *overestimating others noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders and *Self Esteem *one’s feelings of high or low self-worth *Self-Serving Bias *readiness to perceive oneself favorably Self-Serving Bias *O.J. Simpson *Bill Clinton *Princess Diana *Michael Jordan *Mother Teresa *Yourself *19% said Yes *52% said Yes *60% said Yes *65% said Yes *79% said Yes *87% said Yes Exploring the Self *Individualism Individualism *giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications in *Collectivism *giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly work Exploring the Self ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2010 for the course PSYCH 1A taught by Professor Kerrihogue during the Fall '10 term at Santa Rosa.
- Fall '10