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Unformatted text preview: using thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness *i.e. forgetting sexual abuse occurred Defense Mechanisms *Regression *defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a mode of behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development Defense Mechanisms *Reaction Formation *defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites *people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety­arousing unconscious feelings unconscious feelings *i.e. aggression turns in to excessive lovey­dovey expressions Defense Mechanisms *Projection *defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others *i.e. “look at how aggressive Joe is being” *Rationalization *defense mechanism that offers self­justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions *i.e. “Joe likes to be hit” Defense Mechanisms *Displacement *defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person *as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet *i.e. kicking the dog *Sublimation *displacement to activities that are valued by society *i.e. an aggressive person joins the football team Assessing the Unconscious *Projective Test *a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics Assessing the Unconscious *Rorschach Inkblot Test *the most widely used projective test *a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach *seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots Assessing the Unconscious ­ Rorschach Post­Freudian Psychodynamic Theories *Karen Horney’s focus on security *sought to balance Freud’s masculine biases *Object relations theories *Alfred Adler’s individual psychology *importance of childhood social tension *Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development *Carl Jung’s collective unconscious *concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history Humanistic Perspective *Focuses on the human tendency to create belief systems and to govern our lives in accordance with these beliefs *Phenomenological reality ­ one’s conscious understanding of his/her world Humanistic Perspective *Abraham Maslow (1908­1970) *studied self­actualization processes of productive and healthy people (e.g., Lincoln) Humanistic Perspective Maslow *Hierarchy of needs *Self­Actualization *the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self­esteem is achieved *the motivation to fulfill one’s potential *the realization of one’s dreams and capabilities Humanistic Perspective *Carl Rogers’s person­centered approach *Self­Concept *all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, “Who am I?” *Conditional positive regard *love and praise is withheld unless one conforms to others’ expectations *Unconditional positive regard *accepting a person regardless of who they are or what they do...
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