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Unformatted text preview: Personality Theories Personality Theories What is Personality? *A person’s general style of interacting with the world *People differ from one another in ways that are relatively consistent over time and place *Basic Perspectives *Psychoanalytic *Humanistic The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Freud’s theory proposed that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Psychoanalysis *Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality *Freud’s theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts *techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Free Association *in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious *person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Unconscious *according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories *contemporary viewpoint information processing of which we are unaware The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Unconscious inaccessible warehouse of anxietyproducing thoughts and drives The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Conscious all things we are aware of at any given moment The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Preconscious everything that can, with a little effort, be brought into consciousness Personality Structure *Id *contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy *strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives *operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification Personality Structure *Superego *the part of personality that presents internalized ideals *provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations Personality Structure *Ego *the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality *mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality *operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain Psychoanalytic Approach Personality Development *Psychosexual Stages *the childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasureseeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones *Oedipus Complex *a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father Personality Development *Identification *the process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos *Fixation *an attempt to achieve pleasure as an adult in ways that are equivalent to how it way achieved in these stages Oral Stage (birth 1 year) *Mouth is associated with sexual pleasure *Weaning a child can lead to fixation if not handled correctly *Fixation can lead to oral activities in adulthood Anal Stage (1 3 years) *Anus is associated with pleasure *Toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly *Fixation can lead to anal retentive or expulsive behaviors in adulthood Phallic Stage (3 5 years) *Focus of pleasure shifts to the genitals *Oedipus or Electra complex can occur *Fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males and the need for attention or domination in females Latency Stage (5 puberty) *Sexuality is repressed *Children participate in hobbies, school and samesex friendships Genital Stage (puberty on) *Sexual feelings reemerge and are oriented toward others *Healthy adults find pleasure in love and work, fixated adults have their energy tied up in earlier stages Personality Development Defense Mechanisms *Defense Mechanisms *the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality *Repression *the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxietyarousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness *i.e. forgetting sexual abuse occurred Defense Mechanisms *Regression *defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a mode of behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development Defense Mechanisms *Reaction Formation *defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites *people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxietyarousing unconscious feelings unconscious feelings *i.e. aggression turns in to excessive loveydovey expressions Defense Mechanisms *Projection *defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others *i.e. “look at how aggressive Joe is being” *Rationalization *defense mechanism that offers selfjustifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions *i.e. “Joe likes to be hit” Defense Mechanisms *Displacement *defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person *as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet *i.e. kicking the dog *Sublimation *displacement to activities that are valued by society *i.e. an aggressive person joins the football team Assessing the Unconscious *Projective Test *a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics Assessing the Unconscious *Rorschach Inkblot Test *the most widely used projective test *a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach *seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots Assessing the Unconscious Rorschach PostFreudian Psychodynamic Theories *Karen Horney’s focus on security *sought to balance Freud’s masculine biases *Object relations theories *Alfred Adler’s individual psychology *importance of childhood social tension *Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development *Carl Jung’s collective unconscious *concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history Humanistic Perspective *Focuses on the human tendency to create belief systems and to govern our lives in accordance with these beliefs *Phenomenological reality one’s conscious understanding of his/her world Humanistic Perspective *Abraham Maslow (19081970) *studied selfactualization processes of productive and healthy people (e.g., Lincoln) Humanistic Perspective Maslow *Hierarchy of needs *SelfActualization *the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and selfesteem is achieved *the motivation to fulfill one’s potential *the realization of one’s dreams and capabilities Humanistic Perspective *Carl Rogers’s personcentered approach *SelfConcept *all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, “Who am I?” *Conditional positive regard *love and praise is withheld unless one conforms to others’ expectations *Unconditional positive regard *accepting a person regardless of who they are or what they do ...
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- Fall '10