personality_theories - Personality Theories Personality...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Personality Theories Personality Theories What is Personality? *A person’s general style of interacting with the world *People differ from one another in ways that are relatively consistent over time and place *Basic Perspectives *Psychoanalytic *Humanistic The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Freud’s theory proposed that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Psychoanalysis *Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality *Freud’s theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts *techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Free Association *in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious *person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Unconscious *according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories *contemporary viewpoint­ information processing of which we are unaware The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Unconscious ­ inaccessible warehouse of anxiety­producing thoughts and drives The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Conscious ­ all things we are aware of at any given moment The Psychoanalytic Perspective *Preconscious ­ everything that can, with a little effort, be brought into consciousness Personality Structure *Id *contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy *strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives *operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification Personality Structure *Superego *the part of personality that presents internalized ideals *provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations Personality Structure *Ego *the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality *mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality *operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain Psychoanalytic Approach Personality Development *Psychosexual Stages *the childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure­seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones *Oedipus Complex *a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father Personality Development *Identification *the process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos *Fixation *an attempt to achieve pleasure as an adult in ways that are equivalent to how it way achieved in these stages Oral Stage (birth ­ 1 year) *Mouth is associated with sexual pleasure *Weaning a child can lead to fixation if not handled correctly *Fixation can lead to oral activities in adulthood Anal Stage (1 ­ 3 years) *Anus is associated with pleasure *Toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly *Fixation can lead to anal retentive or expulsive behaviors in adulthood Phallic Stage (3 ­ 5 years) *Focus of pleasure shifts to the genitals *Oedipus or Electra complex can occur *Fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males and the need for attention or domination in females Latency Stage (5 ­ puberty) *Sexuality is repressed *Children participate in hobbies, school and same­sex friendships Genital Stage (puberty on) *Sexual feelings re­emerge and are oriented toward others *Healthy adults find pleasure in love and work, fixated adults have their energy tied up in earlier stages Personality Development Defense Mechanisms *Defense Mechanisms *the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality *Repression *the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety­arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness *i.e. forgetting sexual abuse occurred Defense Mechanisms *Regression *defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a mode of behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development Defense Mechanisms *Reaction Formation *defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites *people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety­arousing unconscious feelings unconscious feelings *i.e. aggression turns in to excessive lovey­dovey expressions Defense Mechanisms *Projection *defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others *i.e. “look at how aggressive Joe is being” *Rationalization *defense mechanism that offers self­justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions *i.e. “Joe likes to be hit” Defense Mechanisms *Displacement *defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person *as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet *i.e. kicking the dog *Sublimation *displacement to activities that are valued by society *i.e. an aggressive person joins the football team Assessing the Unconscious *Projective Test *a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics Assessing the Unconscious *Rorschach Inkblot Test *the most widely used projective test *a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach *seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots Assessing the Unconscious ­ Rorschach Post­Freudian Psychodynamic Theories *Karen Horney’s focus on security *sought to balance Freud’s masculine biases *Object relations theories *Alfred Adler’s individual psychology *importance of childhood social tension *Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development *Carl Jung’s collective unconscious *concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history Humanistic Perspective *Focuses on the human tendency to create belief systems and to govern our lives in accordance with these beliefs *Phenomenological reality ­ one’s conscious understanding of his/her world Humanistic Perspective *Abraham Maslow (1908­1970) *studied self­actualization processes of productive and healthy people (e.g., Lincoln) Humanistic Perspective Maslow *Hierarchy of needs *Self­Actualization *the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self­esteem is achieved *the motivation to fulfill one’s potential *the realization of one’s dreams and capabilities Humanistic Perspective *Carl Rogers’s person­centered approach *Self­Concept *all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, “Who am I?” *Conditional positive regard *love and praise is withheld unless one conforms to others’ expectations *Unconditional positive regard *accepting a person regardless of who they are or what they do ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Ask a homework question - tutors are online