group_influences

group_influences - Group Influences Social Pressure *Set of...

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Group Influences Social Pressure *Set of psychological forces exerted on an individual by other people or by the individual’s beliefs about other people Lewin’s Field Theory *Field of forces that push or pull us in certain directions *Some internal *wishes/desires *Some external *social pressure Latane’s Social Impact Theory *Want to identify factors that increase/decrease social pressure *Wish to predict the impact of social pressure at any given time *number of sources *strength of a source *immediacy of a source Social Pressure in Group Decisions *Group polarization *enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group *Why does this occur? *informational and normative influences Social Pressure in Group Decisions *Groupthink *mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision- making group overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives *can lead to some better decisions and some worse decisions than individuals Impression Management * How we present ourselves to others *tend to try to look better than we really are *want to look good, modest, sincere – we are intuitive politicians *we also tend to engage in more impression management with new acquaintances than with old friends Self-Monitoring *Attention paid to the impressions being made, then fine tuning the performance *high self monitors *watch themselves vigilantly *constantly modify behavior *low self monitors *less vigilant *more consistent from audience to audience *Differences between cultures Facilitating/Interfering Effects of an Audience *Do we do better in groups or alone?
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*Social facilitation *Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others *occurs with simple or well-learned tasks, but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered *Social interference (social inhibition) *decline in performance when observers are present *occurs with new or difficult tasks Zajonc’s Theory *Linked social interference and facilitation to arousal level *High arousal improves simple or well-learned tasks *High arousal worsens complex or poorly-learned task Social Influence
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group_influences - Group Influences Social Pressure *Set of...

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