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Chapter 12 summary

Chapter 12 summary - Chapter 12 A Self-Evaluations(Text p...

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Chapter 12 A. Self-Evaluations (Text p. 361) Learning Objective 12.1 - How do children evaluate themselves and their own talents, abilities, and weaknesses, and how does this evaluation process relate to a sense of self-esteem? Self-evaluations tend to be unrealistically optimistic during early childhood as most young children believe they are more capable than they really are. Self-evaluations become more realistic during middle childhood as children compare themselves to other children and get a more accurate view of how their capabilities compare. By age 7, children form an overall judgment of themselves, or global self-evaluation. Children begin to distinguish between their real selves and their ideal selves—between the performance and attributes children actually have and the qualities they would like to have. During middle childhood, children make judgments about themselves in many areas including athletics, academics, social skills, and physical appearance. B. Emotional Development (Text p. 362) Learning Objective 12.2 - What changes take place in the development of emotions during middle childhood? Middle childhood is a period where children learn to control and regulate their own emotional reactions, and they improve their abilities to accurately read the emotions of other people. Children need to learn that their emotional reactions affect other people. Children who learn positive emotional skills from their parents seem to have more success making friends. An interesting finding from recent research is that children sometimes have difficulty reading the emotions expressed by people from ethnic backgrounds other than their own. Accuracy in reading emotions is an important social skill. Children who are adept at reading emotions tend to be liked more by their peers. C. Gender Differences (Text p. 365) Learning Objective 12.3 - What gender differences do we see in how boys and girls behave at this age? Beginning at an early age, boys show more physical aggression, such as hitting or kicking, than girls, and this difference continues throughout childhood and into adulthood. Boys also show higher levels of assertiveness than girls, though the difference is not as large as for physical aggressiveness. Researchers have not found consistent gender differences in helping behavior or emotions. Girls often receive ratings from others, and evaluate themselves, as more helpful, cooperative, and sympathetic, but their actual behavior is not consistently different from that of boys. When attempting to influence others, boys are more likely to use threats and physical force. Girls tend to use
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verbal persuasion or, if that does not work, simply to stop their efforts to influence the other person.
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