Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning - behavior Remove a stimulus Add a...

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1 Operant Conditioning A form of learning in which behavior change is brought about by the consequences of behavior Law of Effect (Thorndike) • responses that produce a desired outcome are more likely to be learned Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner • Reinforcer: Any stimulus that follows and strengthens a response – Primary reinforcer: Meets a biological need – Secondary reinforcer: Learned reinforcer/ associated with primary reinforcer
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2 Types of reinforcers • + reinforcer: a stimulus is added to increase a response • - reinforcer: a stimulus is removed to increase a response Punishment • Punishment is used to decrease the probability that a behavior will be repeated • Used frequently • Not as effective as reinforcement Positive and Negative Punishment • + punishment: a stimulus is added in order to diminish a response • - punishment: a stimulus is taken away in order to diminish a response
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3 Reinforcement and Punishment Decrease a behavior Increase a
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Unformatted text preview: behavior Remove a stimulus Add a stimulus Problems of Punishment May result in other unwanted behaviors Behavior reemerges when threat is removed Triggers escape or aggression Inhibits new learning Can affect self-esteem Punished often fears/ dislikes punisher When to Use Punishment When immediate suppression of behavior is absolutely necessary 4 Can Punishment be Effective? Immediate Consistent Proportionate No mixed messages Negative more effective than positive What To Do About Unwanted Behavior Extinction Reinforce desired behavior Schedules of Reinforcement Time-based schedules Fixed Interval Variable Interval Response-based schedules Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio 5 Shaping Reinforcing closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior Effective for teaching complex behaviors...
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2010 for the course PSYCH 1A taught by Professor Kerrihogue during the Fall '10 term at Santa Rosa.

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Operant conditioning - behavior Remove a stimulus Add a...

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