{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning - behavior Remove a stimulus Add a...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Operant Conditioning A form of learning in which behavior change is brought about by the consequences of behavior Law of Effect (Thorndike) • responses that produce a desired outcome are more likely to be learned Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner • Reinforcer: Any stimulus that follows and strengthens a response – Primary reinforcer: Meets a biological need – Secondary reinforcer: Learned reinforcer/ associated with primary reinforcer
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
2 Types of reinforcers • + reinforcer: a stimulus is added to increase a response • - reinforcer: a stimulus is removed to increase a response Punishment • Punishment is used to decrease the probability that a behavior will be repeated • Used frequently • Not as effective as reinforcement Positive and Negative Punishment • + punishment: a stimulus is added in order to diminish a response • - punishment: a stimulus is taken away in order to diminish a response
Background image of page 2
3 Reinforcement and Punishment Decrease a behavior Increase a
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: behavior Remove a stimulus Add a stimulus Problems of Punishment • May result in other unwanted behaviors • Behavior reemerges when threat is removed • Triggers escape or aggression • Inhibits new learning • Can affect self-esteem • Punished often fears/ dislikes punisher When to Use Punishment • When immediate suppression of behavior is absolutely necessary 4 Can Punishment be Effective? • Immediate • Consistent • Proportionate • No mixed messages • Negative more effective than positive What To Do About Unwanted Behavior • Extinction • Reinforce desired behavior Schedules of Reinforcement • Time-based schedules – Fixed Interval – Variable Interval • Response-based schedules – Fixed Ratio – Variable Ratio 5 Shaping • Reinforcing closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior • Effective for teaching complex behaviors...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 5

Operant conditioning - behavior Remove a stimulus Add a...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon bookmark
Ask a homework question - tutors are online