Memory - Memory 1 Memory is the process by Memory which...

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Unformatted text preview: Memory 1 Memory is the process by Memory which information is: which • Encoded • Stored • Retrieved Retrieval Storage Encoding 2 What is Memory? •Human memory works constructively •Not like a computer or photograph or video •Human memory is imperfect and malleable 3 Memory’s Three Basic Memory’s Functions Functions • Encoding – info is modified to fit format – elaboration • type of encoding in which meaning is added to info in type working memory so that it can be more easily stored and retrieved retrieved 4 Memory’s Three Basic Memory’s Functions Functions • Storage – retention of encoded memory over time • Retrieval – finding and recovering memory 5 The Three Stages of Memory Sensory Sensory Memory Memory Working Working Memory Memory Long-term Long-term Memory Memory Not separate storehouses in the brain Different systems with different characteristics 6 The Three Stages of Memory Sensory Sensory Memory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory •Preserves brief sensory impressions •Exact replica •Also called sensory register •Lasts less than 1 second 7 The First Stage: Sensory The Memory Memory •On the next slide, you will see a On series of letters for less than one second •Try to remember as many letters Try as you can as 8 DJB XHG CLY 9 The First Stage: Sensory The Memory Memory • How many can you recall? 10 DJB XHG CLY 11 The First Stage: Sensory The Memory Memory • • • Capacity: 12 or more items Only 3 or 4 can go into working memory Only Separate sensory register for each Separate sense • Contains no meaning 12 The First Stage: Sensory The Memory Memory • Psychologists believe that, in this stage, Psychologists memory images take the form of nerve impulses 13 The Three Stages of Memory • Working memory – Preserves recently perceived events or Preserves experiences for less than a minute without rehearsal rehearsal – Also called short-term memory or STM 14 The Second Stage: Working The Memory Memory • Not clear how sensory memories become Not working memories working • Given meaning in working memory • Incomplete represenataional capabilities • 7 plus or minus 2 15 Chunking • A meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be meaningful stored as a unit in working memory stored • PBSFOXCNNABCCBSMTVNBC • PBS FOX CNN ABC CBS MTV NBC 16 Rehearsal • Maintenance rehearsal – Process in which information is repeated or Process reviewed to keep it form fading while in working memory memory • Elaborative rehearsal – Process in which information is actively reviewed Process and related to information already in LTM and – Mnemonics: formal techniques for elaboration 17 Encoding and Storage Encoding in Working Memory in • Levels-of-processing theory Levels-of-processing – Info that is more thoroughly connected to Info meaningful terms in LTM will be better remembered remembered 18 The Three Stages of Memory • Long-term memory – Stores material organized according to meaning, also called LTM – Capacity: unlimited – Duration: unlimited 19 The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory • Procedural memory Procedural – Division of LTM that stores memories for Division how things are done how 20 The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory • Declarative memory Declarative • Division of LTM that stores explicit Division information (also known as fact memory) (also 21 Subdivisions of Declarative Subdivisions Memory Memory • Episodic memory – Subdivision of declarative memory that Subdivision stores memories for personal events, or “episodes” • Semantic memory • Subdivision of declarative memory that Subdivision stores general knowledge, including meanings of words and concepts meanings concepts 22 Long-term memory Declarative memory Procedural memory Semantic memory Includes memory for: language, facts general knowledge Episodic memory Includes memory for: events, personal experiences Includes memory for: motor skills, operant and classical conditioning 23 ...
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