Topic #3 - Neuronal and Synaptic Transmission

Topic #3 - Neuronal and Synaptic Transmission -...

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Dr. K Campbell PSY1101 B,C,D                                     Introduction to Experimental Psychology Neurosciences: Neuronal and synaptic transmission One of the earliest illustrations of neurons as drawn by Santiago Ramon y  Cajal based on what he observed through his beloved Zeiss microscope.  From:   Ramon y Cajal, S.  Histologie du système nerveux de l’homme et des  vertébrés . Paris: 1911. English translation:  Histology of the Nervous System of 
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Introduction to Experimental Psychology Biology of the Mind (Neurosciences): Neuronal-Synaptic Transmission Structure of Neuron DENDRITES : short branches projecting from cell body. Within the dendrites are embedded  highly specialized receptors (see section on terminal endings below) receive  messages from other neurons  CELL BODY (soma):  contains the nucleus of the cell and other basic elements necessary for  the survival of the cell.  AXON : a long, slender tube which carries information from the cell body to synaptic  terminals. It is analogous to a wire or a cable. o The axons of longer neurons are surrounded by a  myelin sheath . This causes them  to appear white. Axons of shorter neurons are not surrounded by a myelin sheath.  They thus appear to be grey.  o The myelin sheath is made up of a lipid (fat) material that may surround long  axons. They serve to (1) protect the axon (2) insulate the axon … this thus  preventing axonal “cross-talk” (3) speed up transmission  TERMINAL ENDING (bouton endings):  As the name indicates, this is the terminal ending of  the axon. At this ending, there is a swelling (the “bouton”). This is caused by the storage of  neurotransmitter substance here. A physical gap (called the “synaptic gap” or simply the  “synapse”) separates the terminal ending and the dendrites of the next neuron. When (and if) 
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the neurotransmitters are released, they must travel across this gap. Embedded in the walls of  the dendrites of the postsynaptic neuron are highly specialized receptors that can “recognize”  the chemical code of the neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters can then attach themselves  (or “bind”) to the receptor site. The neurotransmitter may excite or may inhibit the activity of  the second neuron (more about this later) Different Types of Neurons Sensory Neurons : transmit impulses received by sensory receptors to CNS. These are also  called  afferents Motor Neurons efferents . Interneurons
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2010 for the course PSY 1101 taught by Professor Textbook during the Fall '08 term at University of Ottawa.

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Topic #3 - Neuronal and Synaptic Transmission -...

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