Topic #4 - Anatomy and Functions of Nervous System

Topic #4 - Anatomy and Functions of Nervous System - Dr. K....

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Unformatted text preview: Dr. K. Campbell PSY1101 B,C,D I ntroduction to Experimental Psychology Neurosciences: Anatomy and functions of the nervous system Introduction to Experimental Psychology The Brain and Nervous System Orientation Medial-Lateral (middle of body/side of body) Anterior-Posterior aspects of brain (front of head-back of head) Superior-Inferior aspects of brain (upper portion of head -lower portion of head) Slices (Viewing the brain in 2-dimensional images) Horizontal (parallel to the floor) slice. Permits visualisation of anterior-posterior and lateral-medial aspects of brain. One cannot see the superior-inferior aspect. The MRI images on the right show examples of various horizontal slices at various levels of the brain (going from an inferior at the bottom to a superior position at the top). Coronal (from ear-to-ear) slice. Permits visualisation of superior-inferior and lateral- medial aspects of brain. One cannot see the anterior-posterior aspect. Saggital (from nose to back of head) slice. Permits visualisation of anterior-posterior and superior-inferior aspects of brain. One cannot see the lateral-medial aspect. Mid-saggital slice : saggital slice that the splits the brain into two equal halves. In the image below, a view is shown of a horizontal, coronal and mid-saggital slice (A=anterior, P=posterior; R=Right, L=Left; S=superior, I=Inferior). The crosshairs are located on a part of the brain called the thalamus (see discussion below). Image courtesy www.brainmaps.org Imaging Techniques How is the brain actually viewed? Up to quite recently, it was only possible to dissect brains from cadavers (for obvious reasons). With modern scanning techniques, it is possible to obtain high resolution images of the living brain. These give a static image of the brain but cannot show exactly what areas are active during any given task. There are however other techniques that permit the monitoring of the functions of the different brain regions. Anatomical dissection . Slicing the human brain. Appropriate (obviously) only for cadavers (go to www.brainmaps.org for a wide display of brains from cadavers ). MRI . Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Provides a high resolution image of the human brain. Static: does not indicate which areas of the brain are active during a specific task . Expensive. Figure above is from an MR image. PET . Positron Emission Tomography. Provides an image of what areas of the brain require glucose for a task to be completed. Somewhat invasive -- deoxyglucose must be injected into the blood stream. Another problem is that it is relatively slow. It can take an injected into the blood stream....
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Topic #4 - Anatomy and Functions of Nervous System - Dr. K....

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