Chapter 9 - Memory

Chapter 9 - Memory - MEMORY Memory is any indication that...

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MEMORY Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time Several different models or explanations of how memory works have emerged from memory research. Two of the most important models: the three-box/information processing model and the levels of processing model. Neither model is perfect. Three Box model proposes the three stages that information passes through before it is stored: Sensory memory -split-second holding tank -the information your senses are processing right now is held in sensory memory less than a second -George Sperling did experiments, showed iconic memory – a split-second perfect photograph of a scene -Other experiments indicate echoic memory – split-second memory for sounds -Most of the information in sensory memory is not encoded -Selective attention determines which sensory messages get encoded Short-term/Working Memory -memories we are currently working with -temporary, they usually fade in 10 to 30 seconds -capacity is limited on average to around seven items (7+/-) -Events are encoded as visual codes, acoustic codes, or semantic codes -Capacity can be expanded through chunking -Mnemonic devices- memory aids, really examples of chunking -Rehearsal or simple repetition can hold information in short-term memory Long-term Memory -permanent storage -capacity is unlimited -memories can decay or fade -stored in three different formats Episodic memory – memories of specific events stored in a sequential series of events Semantic memory – general knowledge of the world stored as facts, meanings, or categories rather than sequentially Procedural Memory – memories of skills and how to perform them, These are sequential but might be very complicated to describe in words. Memories can also be implicit or explicit Explicit – also called declarative – conscious memories of facts or events Implicit – also called nondeclarative- unintentional memories that we might not even realize we have
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LEVELS OF PROCESSING MODEL This theory explains why we remember what we do by examining how deeply the memory was processed or thought about. Memories are neither short- nor long-term. They are deeply (or elaboratively) processed or shallowly (or maintenance) processed. According to the levels of processing theory, we remember things we spend more cognitive time and energy processing. This theory explains why we remember stories better than a simple recitation of events and why, in general, we remember questions better than statements. RETRIEVAL - getting information - two different kinds: recognition and recall There are several factors that influence why we can retrieve some memories and why we forget others. - Primacy effect – more likely to recall items presented at the beginning of a list - Recency effect - ability to recall the items at the end of a list - Context - semantic network theory -Fl ashbulb memories - Mood-congruent memory - ability to recall a memory is increased when current mood matches mood when stored
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2010 for the course PSY 1101 taught by Professor Campbell during the Fall '10 term at Cornell.

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Chapter 9 - Memory - MEMORY Memory is any indication that...

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