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Chapter 8 - Learning

Chapter 8 - Learning - LEARNING Learning a relatively...

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LEARNING Learning- a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience . CLASSICAL CONDITIONING – learning based on association of stimuli Ivan Pavlov Unconditioned stimulus (US) Unconditioned response (UR) Conditioned stimulus (CS) Conditioned response (CR) Acquisition phase Delayed conditioning Simultaneous conditioning Backward conditioning Generalization Discrimination Extinction Spontaneous recovery First-order conditioning Second-order conditioning Equipotentiality Learned taste aversions Salient Contiguity model – the Pavlovian model, the more times two things are paired, the greater the learning that will take place Contingency model - Rescorla – rests of cognitive view of classical conditioning: If A is contingent on B and vice versa then one predicts the other, learning more powerful. OPERANT CONDITIONING – kind of learning based on the association of consequences with one’s behavior. Edward Thorndike Law of effect Instrumental learning B.F. Skinner Skinner box Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Omission training Punishment Escape learning Avoidance learning Shaping
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Chaining Primary reinforcers Secondary reinforcers Premack principle – the reinforcing properties of something depend on the situation Instinctive drift Reinforcement schedules differ in two ways: What determines when reinforcement is delivered – the number of responses made (ratio) or the passage of time (interval) The pattern of reinforcement – either constant (fixed) or changing (variable) Observational learning – also known as modeling was studied by Albert Bandura in formulating his social-learning theory A significant body of research indicates that children learn violent behaviors from watching violent television programs and violent adult models Latent learning studied by Edward Tolman is hidden learning experiment with maze running rats, ones that didn’t initially get a reward didn’t seem to learn, but when they started being rewarded their performance changed drastically Abstract learning involves understanding concepts such as tree or same Skinner box pigeons picking out certain shapes Insight learning Wolfgang Kohler did studies with chimpanzees Insight learning occurs when one suddenly realizes how to solve a problem Chimps using boxes to reach banana What Is Learning?
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