Review1-2 - Full Review Sheet Monday Lecture 1 Bacterial...

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Full Review Sheet Monday, June 02, 2008 Lecture 1: Bacterial Genetics Prokaryotic Cells - no nuclear membrane, circular DNA, no mRNA processing, Prototrophic - bacteria that can synthesize all required nutrients, can grow in minimal environment Auxotrophic - bacteria that needs at least one required nutrient to be added Conjugation - bacteria passing DNA from donor to receptor through pili Fertility Factor - strand of DNA located on plasmids that encode for pili and allows bacteria to be a donor (F- vs. F+) Rolling Circle replication - replication of plasmid in F+ bacteria: replicates ssDNA, inserts it into recipient bacteria (F-) and ssDNA is complimented by DNA polymerase and made into a plasmid by the recipient bacteria Hfr Strain - bacteria where the F+ plasmid is incorporated into the chromosomal DNA Exoconjugant - recipient bacteria with a strain of foreign DNA injected by an Hfr strain, forms a partial diploid and takes part in double recombination to integrate foreign Hfr strain DNA into its own chromosome Exogenote - foreign piece of DNA from Hfr strain when inside a recipient bacteria (exoconjugant) Endogenote - host DNA of the exoconjugant Partial Diploids - part of the chromosome has 2 copies (eg. Bacterial conjugation) Interrupted Mating Sequence - stopping the bacterial conjugation sequence at various points reveals that recombination of the exogenote into the endogenote happens in a certain order which reflects the order of the genes inserting from the donor to the recipient bacteria. It starts at the 'O' site and ends at the F-integration site. F-integration site - site which determines the entry point of the donor bacterial DNA (exogenote) Chromosomal Transfer - transfer of F plasmid from donor to recipient, plasmid integrates with recipient chromosome and creates Hfr strand, Hfr strand acts in conjugation and, through recombination, replicates its DNA into another recipient strand Plasmid Transfer - Transfer of plasmid from donor to recipient bacterial cell, no recombination, genes on plasmid can only be transaffecting Bacterial Chromosome Mapping - units are by minutes, by seeing both the order of recombination as well as recombination frequency between exogenote and endogenote F' Factor - when F factor is outlooped and a portion of chromosomal DNA is attached to it, used to study dominant/recessive characteristics Bacteriaphage - virus that affects bacteria cells RF of Phages - recombination freq when two phages of different genotypes infect the same bacteria = # recombinant phenotypes / total Transduction
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