Nanocellulose - Cellulose Review and Nanocellulose Douglas...

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1 Cellulose Review and Nanocellulose Douglas J. Gardner Professor of Wood Science Cellulose References Cellulose review – Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 2-37 Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap 2005. www.nanotechforest.org Wegner, T. H. and P. E. Jones, Cellulose 13 :115-118 (2006). Advances in Polymer Science. 2006. 205:49-96. Klemm et al. Nanocelluloses as Innovative Polymers in Research and Applications. C.W. Kim, D.S. Kim, S.Y. Kang, M. Marquez and Y.L. Joo, "Structural Studies of Electrospun Cellulose Nanofibers", Polymer, 47, 5097-5107 (2006). Oksman, K. and A. Mathew. 2007. Processing and Properties of Nanocomposites Based on Cellulose Whiskers. 9 th Int. Conf. on Wood & Biofiber Plastic Composites, Madison, WI. Gardner, D. J. G. Oporto, R. Mills and M.A.S.A. Samir. 2008. Adhesion and Surface Issues in Cellulose and Nanocellulose – In Press. JAST
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2 Molecular Structure of Cellulose • Repeating β -D-glucopyranose covalently linked through acetal functions between the OH group of C4 and C1 carbon atom ( β -1,4 glucan) • Extensive, linear chain polymer with large number of hydroxyl groups present in a thermodynamically preferred 4 C 1 conformation • The preferred bond angles of the acetal oxygen for every second anhydroglucose unit is rotated 180 ° in the plane Molecular Structure - Properties • Hydrophilicity • Chirality • Degradability • Broad chemical variability • Hydrogen bonding • Different crystalline structures and morphologies
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3 Cellulose Degree of Polymerization (DP) • DP varies with origin • Wood pulp ranges from 300 to 1700 • Cotton and other plant fibers 800 to 10,000 • Regenerated cellulose fibers 250 to 500 • Microcrystalline cellulose 150 to 300 • Bacterial cellulose 2000 to 8000 Cellulose Formation
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4 Cellulose Crystal Structure • Cellulose I is native cellulose • Cellulose II NaOH treatment (mercerization) Cellulose Crystallinity • Cellulose can exist in different crystalline forms depending on treatment • X-ray diffraction is a useful tool to measure crystallinity
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Nanocellulose - Cellulose Review and Nanocellulose Douglas...

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