m05 - Module 5 TCP/IP (The Transport and Internetworking...

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Copyright 2009 1 Module 5 TCP/IP (The Transport and Internetworking Layer Protocol) By Dr. Percy Dias
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Copyright 2009 2 History and Future of TCP/IP The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) created the TCP/IP reference model because it wanted a network that could survive any conditions. Some of the layers in the TCP/IP model have the same name as layers in the OSI model.
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Copyright 2009 3 Internet Layer The purpose of the Internet layer is to send packets from a network node and have them arrive at the destination node independent of the path taken. Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Address Resolution (ARP) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
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Copyright 2009 4 Internet Layer Protocols IP performs the following operations Defining a packet and an addressing scheme Transferring data between the Internet Layer and the Network Access Layer Routing packets to remote hosts IP is sometimes referred to as an unreliable protocol Provides connectionless, best-effort delivery routing of packets
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Copyright 2009 5 Transport Layer Perspective
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Copyright 2009 6 The Transport Layer Functions Five basic services: Segmenting upper-layer application data Establishing end-to-end operations Sending segments from one end host to another end host Ensuring data reliability provided by sequence numbers and acknowledgments Ensuring flow control provided by sliding windows
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Copyright 2009 7 Reliable Data Transport Ensure that segments delivered will be acknowledged to the sender Provide for retransmission of any segments that are not acknowledged Put segments back into their correct sequence at the destination Provide congestion avoidance and control
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Copyright 2009 8 Connectionless and Connection- Oriented Protocols Connection-oriented protocol A protocol either that requires an exchange of messages before data transfer begins or that has a required pre-established correlation between two endpoints Connectionless protocol A protocol that does not require an exchange of messages and that does not require a pre- established correlation between two endpoints
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Copyright 2009 9 Three-way Handshake TCP is connection-oriented, so it requires connection establishment before data transfer begins For a connection to be established, two hosts must synchronize on each other’s initial sequence numbers (ISNs) Initial Sequence numbers are actually large random numbers chosen by each host Connection establishment refers to the process of initializing sequence and acknowledgement fields and agreeing to the port numbers used.
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Copyright 2009 10 Three-Way Handshake
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Copyright 2009 11 TCP Connection Establishment
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m05 - Module 5 TCP/IP (The Transport and Internetworking...

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