midterm 2 answers

midterm 2 answers - NAME QUESTION]: PHOTOSYNTHESIS (20pts)...

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Unformatted text preview: NAME QUESTION]: PHOTOSYNTHESIS (20pts) The simplest eq tie for photosynthesis is: Van) I o +09"L3 Li} a) (lpt) In the SECOND HALF of the equation above, underline what is oxidized and‘ circle what is reduced. Va Pt «COFQD [ g b) (lpt) Does the oxygen generated by photosynthesis come from C0; or H20? H90 I)d) (1pt)Is 02 generated in cyclic electron transfer, non-cyclic electron transfer, or both? Non—0306c C02 + H20 -) [CH2 C (1 \ e)(lpt) How about ATP? BO‘H/l f) (3pts) Scientists find plant life on another planet. Afier studying the plant’s photosynthetic apparatus they discover it works nearly identically to those in plants on earth. The only difference is the wavelengths of light harvested by the photosystems.- They call the photosystems of this plant P400 and P420. Based on the names of the 2 photosysterns, does this plant capture photons of higher or lower energy than the photosystems of plants on earth? (7:) thgher g)(2pts)Placement of the alien plant Earth’s atmosphere results in a high amount of photorespiration. What type of adfi'ptifion would allow this alien plant to fix carbon in a high oxygen, low C02 environment? (’23 Ct at” CW NAME h) (l lpts) The diagram below represents an experiment with isolated chloroplasts. The chloroplasts were first made acidic by soaking them in a solution at pH4. After the thylakoid space reached pH 4, the chloroplasts were transferred to a basic solution at pH8. This quickly increased the pH of the stroma to 8, while the thylakoid space remained temporarily at pH 4. A burst of ATP synthesis was observed, and the pH difference between the thylakoid space and the stroma then disappeared @ -- w ,,-A»@ "w. an 7 pH 4 pHd @ pHB I“ a) (5pts)Explain why these conditions lead to ATP synthesis _ _ we Change, in PH mu pan-bush a medium L3) qmdtem: CM proton Mth‘E’, «CNCQ acme titre hojlalsol'cl membrane. This Pm’fim ' WWW/fl (a) Puree will 01mm; ATP Sterwsis- +lWDLudl/i PVT? SL5 Wage b) (3pts)Is light needed for the experiment to work? Why or Why not? (I) No ' C2") N0 electron Wiglfii’ needed in genele Pmtnn gradient—I So no ligl’li' deeded +0 slaw ETC i c) (3pts) Will NADPI-I also be generated in these conditions? Why or why not? (*3 N6 . (1} N0 gleam Wafer chm +1) (gel/111mm Nan‘pH ' Midterm l BILDl Fall 05 NAME A. (2pts)Which level of protein structure is present in Hemoglobin, but not Myoglobin? g) 4° or Qua-lama ' B. (6pts)Draw the reaction curves for 02' binding to Myoglobin and Hemoglobin Myoglobin @ Hemoylobin- Reaction Rate _ Reaction Rate togj ’ @ C. (3pts)In addition to oxygen, carbon monoxide is also capable of binding to Hemoglobin’s active site, reducing Hemoglobin’s reaction rate for binding to oxygen. This is an example of (CIRCLE ONE) ' a. Allosteric inhibition @ Competitive inhibition c. Cooperative interaction (1. Allosteric activation ( D. (5pts)Based on your answer above, would adding more substrate (02) increase the reaction rate? Explain your answer. @Yee ~me gubsmde will (:0ka Wt-Hd ' inhibiivr lint (Mira site/,i'viweaflmfl _ we reach'ou rate ' " iii)!» 9A,.T ’I , 'P??2&P$2PPB'BEE§FEEE§§ NAME UESTION 5 3 A. (2pts)The breaking apart of a polymer of glucose molecules occurs spontaneously. What is the specific name for this type of reaction? 29., @ 2 Hgmtggx‘s - op;- am B. (5pts)Draw the energy diagram curve .for the reaction in A. Free energy AG C. (4pts)What effect will the addition of an enzyme have on the curve above? @‘An magma will lower +141, activah'oM W2]- , Err @ Make "HAL reaction 'pvocced «Cast—er D. (3pts)The AG for the reaction in B is a. Less than zero/endergonic b. Greater than zero/exergonic GD Less than zero/exergonic d. Greater than zero/endergonic I Reaction Progress 9 E. (2pts)In the equation AG =AH — TAS what does AG stand for? @ AG; $635 V'yt‘Q‘tlotos Mam/343 F. (épts)What does AS stan for l I @ _ s - @ 4%» 014655416 W853i! Midterm l BILDI Fall 05 NAME G. (5pts)Using the equation AG IAH — TAS, explain why the breaking apart of a polymer of glucose molecules is spontaneous. All: heat ‘pOfbt‘EaY/(‘flfl «banal CA 6-) émlmse W @253 -- (Whom -—> Ibex/Imp 'C+)~-.whw loerLl ‘ Wlol-e‘ (ml—0' ‘ 2, Mohandas §g g®A4=AuJAs =~-—Ac~. wAééo lav) 0») - agponwas QUESTION 6: A. (2pts)Is Cellular Respiration a catabolic or'anabolic process? @ wand» B. (2pts)What is the general equation for respiration? ~— 1—? GOWOWYI I M I fiwmg'v pl, @Cwmowuoi—é—zbgi. -. _ _ “Mme; r-criutwl ' .C, '(3pts)1nthe second half of the above equation, underline what is oxidized and v z 6» circle what is reduced. a I @ (Wsz «%@b 9@MWM M P +0 Spd’s D. (2pts)What is the final (ultimate) electron acceptor at the end of the electron( § transport chain in Respiration? ‘ @ 0% or <9an F. (3pts)What are the2ways ATP can be synthesizgdin the cell? , I L I ' ' ' « W 15 WWGSMBNS \oxtm (0 M5 / substrail «plusphmlqlah‘m . m r Midterm 1 BILDl Fall 05 NAME M G. (3pts)The reactions of the Kreb’s cycle a. Oxidize the products of glycolysis - b. Reduce NAD+ and FA'D 0. Reduce the products of glycolysis l . workout get us drunk? Explain your answer thoroughly. g i . Z-fidPes 0-(3 lama/[when Lapli‘oAa‘ol Alcbl/loi Cm mwdes) Lin mow/1‘“, Wed?) ' ‘ ' {who am lama/imam w“ our W‘SQCSJWIGLUS Mal“ vio’r mam, sozwa cloak aardnwdé WVLUA we Ala/Use, - I. (7pts)In the 19405, some physicians prescribed low doses of a drug called dinitrophenol (DNP) to help patients lose weight. This unsafe method was ' abandoned after a few patients died. DNP makes the lipid bilayer of the inner mitochondrial membrane leaky to H+. Explain how this causes weight loss. . Lenkg :nner mih.memlomm -——> lose Pn’mn granite/1+ %L l, 0+") Noipm’rim vyion “para in drive, ATP Syn-HMSI‘S (6pts)If fermentation occurs in our muscles during exercise, Why doesn’t a good losa'wet‘gh’c bk, break clown sugar. batman W :3 . ltt’rlfl ATP \ , ~--~ 3529} i A! can, .OVt‘lj Make, AW‘bggubfirfit um phosyphovalohaw a} as humps Lop Rfisgi‘mfi‘w +0 +37 +2) mice, ' More, ATP NAME QUESTION 2: CYTOSKELETON(4pts) A) (2pts) Colchicine is a small molecule that can cause microtubules to depolymerize. The addition of cochicine to actively dividing eukaryotic cells would inhibit all of the following except: ' @Cytoplasmic streaming B) Growth of flagella (2} C) Formation of the mitotic apparatus D) Formation of the microtubule cytoskeleton E) Growth of cilia B) (2pts) All of the following involve actin filaments except: A) cytoplasmic streaming B) cytokinesis & C) contraction of smooth muscle (9 flagellar movement in bacteria QUESTION 3: MEMBRANES AND TRANSPORTERS(11pts) A) (2pts) Which of the following would plant cells add to their membranes to increase membrane fluidity at low temperatures? A) Saturated fatty acids B) Glycolipids & © Cholesterol D) Extracellular Matrix E) Flagella (- B) (3pts)Why do some forms of transport require ATP to drive transport whereas others do not? ~Rcfiv€ ngofi' moves mummies Organ/13+— (crap) ‘5) a Concen-irahm gradient—(Or 431mm (ow +0 high Concemh‘ofl) mm; is noi- Jen-tropicall (or has (1+on :50 1+ recbulr‘es work “(Hi/U2 cal—AT? . z v'fllggwfi, W’lQPOHv MOWS melf’m Wl'i'i/l [5/] (or oiOtAJI’)\ (l conumirahm “RUM Page4of'9 Tb [bud COWLCHTQCUONB, "/[hlg 1g Qii’i’lopifidfly @‘llCKS aflfiGBI‘go i‘i’ ragtiwf’S W3 WCNK‘ NAME C) (3pts)Why does active transport require the use of a carrier transporter while passive transport can use either a channel or a carrier? ' ‘ allowA'Liings in WW / HCl- at is O\ POPE f” WM (mtg - . 1:3) wwnfmm man in low L: 3 (Wild/1 wncimmgfl) ll owner cm s wnfimah‘m 4m moflmi‘ngs ['9 names M mmbrzn/W Lno+ a pore) anus or am D) (3pts)What is the difference between peripheral and integral membrane proteins? Are transport proteins peripheral or integral membrane proteins? 1 m S ; CLQ O—F —H/\_Q_l l (Ilieripnemi - loosen); Mind/Ltd tom membm (glnleqmi— ambeolglecl mil/lb WWI/lbw (uflvzmepowr ?vblams are, .l'nlecjral Nmbm mime QUESTION 4: TONICITY (Spts) Using the following words I] otonic h ertonic isotonic fill in the blanks { i ) Placement of a plant cell in a i(\ _ Yll solution results in plant death, ( I] while placement in a - ' solution results in a healthy plant. (I 3 Animal cells blow up whe aced in solutions and shrink ( ,)when in m ’ Q-fi jog] 1‘ C. so] ions. Increased salinity (saltiness) of ponds and lakes is b d for marine life as it puts the marine life in a ( l ) ‘ ' environment. Page 5 of 9 NAME QUESTION 6: THE CELL CYCLE AND MITOSIS (23pts) . A)(2pts)Fill in the circle diagram for the cell cycle below. Mark with a star each stage at which a checkpoint occurs. , d2 ‘ Clo 239* a“ steal W W (Elihu LKPOan I B)(2pts)I-Iow does the nucleus in G2 of the cell cycle differ from the nucleus in GI? ('23 41% OSmuch DNA C)( 7pts) Would the following drugs be able to inhibit cell division in animal cells? ' (write yes or no after each one) If yes, name the sta e of the cell c cle that is inhibited? If the drug inhibits a stage of mitosis name the specific stage. BE SPECIFICH - . ( ' i ( l (2) Phalloidin-depolymerizes actin filaments Yen/3‘ m-I‘I'ngfg I 1 ] ‘ ,( 1] t (:23 Taxol-inhibits microtubule depolymerization \‘(<€5) m l'h) S I g I PM 0&0 h (I) (I) Cephradine—inhibits cell wall formation N 0 '1) ( ‘3 .l _ Olomoucine-inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases gs I ’l’D S MMSUh {ST} ) . Page 7 of 9 NAME D) (5pts)The metaphase checkpoint delays the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned on the spindle. What would be the result if a failure of this checkpoint permitted anaphase to initiate while one chromosome was attached to microtubules fiom only 1 centrosome? Draw a picture to help illustrate your written- answer. L+Il Chmm.) ('1 Chen/{080%} (2.6) ‘PDT Parlth ; . . I W Cell/J 2dcwg (25) one mirof, SEW Chmmod—ids would not sepath J95)” resulting WI 2 dmtfihlu CNS, imam lax-rm cmgww Chwmosomo, 1% 044w Wm :1, (QM E)(7pts) Given the following terms Prometaphase kinetochore Prophase metaphase plate Metaphase centrosome Cytokinesis centomere Telophase telomere Anaphase spindle Which term(s) describe(s) each of the statements below? Terms may be used more than once, or not at all (‘ q A) Stage of mitosis in which the nuclear envelope reforms WKA SQ) L I) B) Links the centromeres of the sister chromatids to the mitotic spindle We ( l) C) Mitotic chromosome ends w Dim (I) D) Stage of mitosis in which the nuclear envelope fragments pvt; (I)E) Stage of mitosis in which sister chromatids are separated WWI SQ ( |) F) Organelle that organizes microtubules CE Lil-V090 W (1)6) Stage of mitosis in which the cleavage furrow develops N 5 Ii 5 Page 8 of 9 NAME QUESTION 7: SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION (l7pts) . A) (7pts) The secretion of insulin from cells in the pancreas occurs through the fusion of insulin containing vesicles with the plasma membrane. The specific term that describes the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane and secretion of its contents is ( A €fi0% E513 . Insulin must then travel a long distance through the blood to reach its rece tors. This type of long distance signal from the secreting cell to the receiving cell is ( I l called a(n) Qfl )dQC/lr mg 5 signal. The binding of insulin to the insulin receptor induces a conformational change in which the receptor change its ‘shape as ‘ ‘ ( *2 follows: by ’ ‘ Q ' WY l € Ud’D HO ‘ “0 l4; (Cu M m Setup ‘ ' In the next stage, transduction, the signal is amplified when ( l kg. nCLgG 5 (give the specific name) sequentially add phosphate groups to the subsequent molecules in the signaling cascade, In the response stage, vesicles containing GLUT4 will fuse with the plasma membrane, allowing ( ) ) a | H ( fl ggfi to enter the cell. As the imported molecules are moving 7 with e concentration gradient, GLUT4 operates as a (I ) ' ' ‘ J ' 0 H type transporter. ‘ - or pa ssure tree/6130 r if @Q CM (1 lmdl/ B) (5pts)What are the main differences in the way that a signal is transmitted from a receptor tyrosine kinase versus from a G protein coupled receptor. RTK -' CipCQ H d .ianIEY i 29.8, 0 Receptor— bqfloMt’S 0t ll r n dumpllos phonj'lo‘tié’s b; {mg 61 changes Coniomahovi . . _ ~ ‘ "in c-bP bowel ‘0‘de *0 ., as s m Gpmwn W‘ ‘ ' ' M «mtg lg kl Newmr _ [.0303 QbPi goons G77“ Amok phospho Imam \ _ ‘W Ci (Iagfaglf/ “j a 09an Memes “ham‘rpcrp ‘ 41> athmi-C new W W1 pcrttttcafl C) C) (lpt) Consider this pathway: GPCR-) G protein 9 adenylyl cyclase-) Which is the second messenger? ('2)S€Coflcl Messengers Wmémi’r signals deems-mam onC Sig-natng molewlu m a signal mmgmcgm ('CTSC‘CLOU. m .flom-Pm-+un (small WW) ' Page 9 of S3 ...
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midterm 2 answers - NAME QUESTION]: PHOTOSYNTHESIS (20pts)...

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