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L2 Non Vascular Plants

L2 Non Vascular Plants - 1 Courseinformation 2...

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Last Lecture 1. Course information 2. Unifying Concept 3. Plant ancestors: the Algae a) Harvesting light energy b) Avoiding light-induced damage  c) The green algae: closest relatives of plants 
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Unifying  C o nc e pt Evo lutio nary Inno vatio ns EARTH
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Anim als , fung i and plants  e vo lve d fro m  anc ie nt pro tis ts Tre e  o f life : C hap. 16, pg . 362
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Algae:The innovations Harvesting light energy? Establish a good  working relationship!
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Algae: Solutions 1. Avoid the light 2. Move your chloroplasts 3. Make protective chemicals or modify  your environment
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Chap. 18, pg.386
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Algae: Euglena Euglena 1. Most  euglenoids live in fresh water 2. Have one or two flagella  3. Have a pellicle 4. Have an ‘eye spot’ (light detector) and  avoid bright light 5. Some species are “mixotrophs” 6. Reproduce asexually
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Algae: Yellow-greens Vaucheria 1. Live mostly in fresh water 2. Most are unicellular but some are  multicellular (colonial) 3. Most have two flagella 4. Chloroplast move in response to  changes in light intensity (avoiding  light damage) 5. Reproduction predominantly asexual  (fragmentation or spores)
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Algae: Haptophytes Haptophytes 1. Majority live in the ocean (tropics) 2. Account for nearly 50% of  photosynthesis in mid-Atlantic 3. 2 disc-shaped chloroplasts 4. Have ‘haptonema’ and flagella 5. Clump in gelatinous colonies 6. Phaseocystis produces UV absorbing  compounds and releases dimethylsulfide
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Algae: Multicellular Volvox Chara 1. Brown algae 2. Red algae 3. Green algae Rhodymenia
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Algae: Multicellular 1. Brown algae: all are multicellular and have  heteromorphic  generations 2. Red algae: complex life cycles, make  carrageenans and agar 3. Green algae: share common ancestor with plants
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Algae: Phylum Chlorophyta Volvox Chara 1. Most live in fresh water 2. Some are terrestrial 3. Have chlorophylls a and b 4. Store starch inside plastids Chlamydomonas
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Algae: Class Charophyceae Chara 1. Unicellular, colonial and multicellular 2. Coleochaetales and Charales are the closest  relatives of plants among all algae 3. Charales form mineralized cell walls (hence  called stoneworts) 4. Have morphological features in common  with vascular plants (apical growth,  reproductive cells protected)
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Lecture 2 Outline 1. Classification and Systematics 2. The Challenges: getting out of the water 3. Environmental constraints 4. The Innovations: drought tolerance 5. The Nonvascular Plants:  The Bryophytes a) Similarities to green algae and to vascular plants b) Alternation of generations
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