L5 Angiosperms - 1 2 3 TheGymnosperms:Chapter22...

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Review of Lecture 4 1. The Gymnosperms: Chapter 22 2. The Innovations: Seeds and secondary growth 3. The Benefits: expanding your territory a) Staying alive when things get dry b) Gaining girth c) Leveraging resources (light, water, storage) 4. Alternation of generations: The sporophyte becomes  dominant and gametophyte dependent
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Life Cycles   Alternation of generations (all plants) Seed Plants 2n 1n 1. Sporophyte is  dominant (if you encounter a seed plant, you are most likely looking at the sporophyte) 2. Gam etophyte is significantly reduced in  physical size 3. The sporophyte is independent at  m aturity while the gam etophyte is  dependant Seed Plants (SPs)
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The challenges 1. Harvesting light energy 2. Staying wet when things get dry 3. Dealing with gravity 4. Divide or be conquered  5. Leveraging resources
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Conifers are the world’s largest and tallest plants  (coastal redwoods) Phylum Coniferophyta: Innovations EARTH Gravity LIGNINS
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Gymnosperms: Seeds 1. The association of  sporangia  with  megaphylls  (as  seen in the ferns, Phylum  Pterophyta) is thought  to have led to the evolution of seed plants 1. Endosporic development  (as seen in phylum   Lycophyta) with the gam etophyte growing inside  the spore protects the developing gam etophyte  from  desiccation while supplying nutrients and  water EARTH
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Gymnosperms:The Innovations EARTH Getting along with lim ited availability of water Pine needle
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Fertilization  Taking advantage of different elements http://geo.arizona.edu/palynology/pid00005.html Pinus echinata pollen Most gymnosperms are wind pollinated (no water needed, gravity not an issue)
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The challenges 1. Harvesting light energy 2. Staying wet when things get dry 3. Dealing with gravity 4. Divide or be conquered  5. Leveraging resources
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Lecture 5 Outline 1. The Flowering Plants: Chap. 23 2. The Innovations: Divide and Conquer and  Leveraging your resources 3. The benefits: Domination 4. Evolution of Flowers 5. Evolution of Flowering Plants 6. Sampling diversity
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The Flowering Plants 1. Phylum Anthophyta (encompasses Angiosperms): 5th phylum  of seed plants  2. Angiosperms: Greek, angion, “container”, sperma, “seed” 3. Approximate 250,000 living species 4. Seeds enclosed in an ovary (fruit at maturity) 5. Have improved conducting tissue and many species are  deciduous (foliage is dropped seasonally) 
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Evolution of Flowering Plants 1. Angiosperms appear in fossil record 130-145 mya  (earliest seed plants 365 mya) 2. RNA and DNA sequence data suggest that the lineage  may have been separate from other seed plants for 280  my  3. Spread quickly: selective advantages 4. Flowers co-evolved with insect and animal pollinators 5. Cross-pollination enhanced  6. Widely separated plant populations can exchange and  recombine their genes
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© R.T. Webb 2007 © R.T. Webb 2007 sepal petal stamen carpel Schematic of a flower Stigma
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