L9 Plant Tissues - ReviewLecture8 1 2 3 4 5 6...

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Review Lecture 8 1. Stems and Leaves: Chapter 4 2. Stem structure and functions 3. Specialized stem functions 4. Phyllotaxy 5. Leaf initiation and venation 6. Specialized leaf functions
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Defining features of Plant Stems 1. Leaves are attached to stems at  nodes 2. The  internode  is the space between leaf  attachm ent points 3. Dorm ant  axillary   buds  that can potentially  form  branches are located between the stem   and the upper leaf petiole
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Seed Plants Separate strands composed of xylem and phloem Have vascular bundles (do not have leaf gaps) Chap.4, pg.83
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Seed Plants Bundles scattered throughout the ground tissue Monocot vascular bundles Chap.4, pg.83 Thought to have  evolved from eusteles  (pith not evident)
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Plant Leaves Vascular tissue is arranged in veins Veins also provide support Chap.4, pg.91
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Leaf Formation Phyllotaxy is  determined  when leaves  initiate at the  meristem. Chap.4, pg.84
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Specialized Functions 1. Drought tolerance : xerophytes with sunken stom ata  and thick cuticles 2. Protection : spines (thorns are m odified stem s and  prickles are m odified epiderm al cells) 3. Support : tendrils attach plant to supporting structures  (Thigm otropism  in Lab#5) 4. Flotation : extra air pockets (Water Lilies) 5. Bracts : Colourful foliage (Poinsettias) 6. Asexual reproduction: both leaves and stem s 7. Insect-eating  leaves acquire nitrogen
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The challenges 1. Harvesting light energy 2. Staying wet when things get dry 3. Dealing with gravity 4. Divide or be conquered  5. Leveraging resources
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Lecture 9 Outline 1. Plant Tissues: Chapter 3 2. Meristems 3. Initials and Derivatives 4. The Three Tissue Systems 5. Dermal Tissues 6. Ground Tissues 7. Vascular Tissues
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Shoot and Root Apical Meristems 1. Form during embryogenesis 2. Produce primary plant body 3. Source of  indeterminate growth   (ability to continue to grow as  long as the organism  lives)
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Plant tissues arise from   m eristem s 1. Meristem s are present in all plants (m osses  to seed plants) 2. From  Greek meritos, meaning “divided” 3. Meristematic cells are called  initials   4. Initials rem ain within m eristem s (are the  pool of stem  cells that m ake up the  m eristem )
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Plant Meristem s 1. Initials  divide giving rise to two daughter cells  1. One daughter cell replenishes the pool of  initial   cells in the m eristem . The second daughter cell,  called a  derivative , is displaced from  the m eristem   and goes on to differentiate and contribute to the  tissues m aking up the plant body 2. Plant growth is m aintained by an  equilibrium   between these two cell populations
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Root Apical Meristem Chap.4 pg.74
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Shoot Apical Meristem SAM Chap.4, pg.88
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Plant Tissues 1. Differentiated cells can revert to become an  undifferentiated cell (
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