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L11 Secondary Growth

L11 Secondary Growth - 1 2 3 4 5 6 ThePlantEpidermis...

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Review of Lecture 10 1. The Plant Epidermis 2. Functions 3. Development 4. Cell Types and their functions 5. The Epidermal Cuticle 6. Using Genetics to Understand Function
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The Plant Epidermis   1. Serves as a Filter 2. Functions as a Barrier
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The Plant Epidermis In extant plants, functions include 1. Gas exchange and light filtration 2. Regulating plant’s water status 3. Preventing pathogen colonization 4. Supporting favorable biotic interactions 5. Signal transduction (reproduction and patterning) 6. Providing mechanical strength
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The Epidermal Cuticle The polymer matrix,  cutin , has lipids,  carbohydrates and proteins em bedded  within it and a waxy layer on the surface  Epicuticular waxes Cutin Carbohydrates, lipids  and proteins
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The Epiderm al Cuticle  “Contact angle” (the angle at which a liquid/vapor interface  m eets a solid surface) is a sim ple way to m easure the  water repellent properties of the epiderm al surface Water droplet Water droplet
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Epiderm al Mutants Trichom e spacing is altered trichom es m utant wild type
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The challenges 1. Harvesting light energy 2. Staying wet when things get dry 3. Dealing with gravity 4. Divide or be conquered  5. Leveraging resources
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Lecture 11 Outline 1. Secondary Growth: Chapter 5 2. Vascular Cambium 3. Cork Cambium 4. Bark 5. Fusiform and Ray Initials 6. Different Woods 7. Growth Patterns
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Secondary Growth 1. Defined as an increase in girth initiated by cell  divisions in  lateral meristems 2. Occurs in woody plants: all  gym nosperm s, 20%  of dicots and 5%  of  m onocots 3. Occurs in stem s and roots after they are  no longer growing in length
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Secondary Growth 1. Lateral  or secondary  meristems  produce  secondary growth 1. Lateral m eristem s are cylinders rather  than clusters of undifferentiated stem   cells 2. Secondary growth is radial 3. New cells are added internally and  bidirectionally (toward centre and  surface)
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Vascular and Cork Cambium make up the  lateral meristems Chap.5, pg.101
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Secondary Growth: Endofenceosis? © R.T. Webb 2007 © R.T. Webb 2007
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Vascular and Cork Cambium 1. Cambium  com es from  the Latin cambire,  meaning “to exchange” 1. Cambial cells are derived from cells that  dedifferentiate   1. Vascular cambium  is derived from  the  cortex and procam bium 2. Cork cambium  form s from  parenchym a  cells and som etim es phloem
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Stem  Vascular Cam bium 1. Produces secondary xylem  (wood) and  phloem 2.
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