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Unformatted text preview: The Art of Delegation: The Art of Delegation: A Mini­Course American Intercontinental University Prepared by: Kevin Handy Shelley Kosakowski Latoya Madlock Chinten Parikh Rebecca Silva Misty Sommers­Tackett Andrew Wong MGT 615 May 20, 2006 What is Delegation? What is Delegation? “Delegation is primarily about entrusting others . This means that they can act and initiate independently; and that they assume responsibility with you for certain tasks.”(Blair 2005) An effective manager is knowledgeable about the strengths and weaknesses of his colleagues. Employees are looked upon as members of a team; each playing a significant role into getting a goal accomplished. What is Delegation? According to, According to delegation can be best described in the acronym SMARTER Specific Measurable Agreed Realistic Timebound Ethical Recorded Why is the ability to effectively Why is the ability to effectively delegate important to a manager? Allows time to focus on other initiatives and increased flexibility (Yates, 2002). It provides an opportunity for the manager to gain trust in the performance of their employees, and in turn earn respect from his employees (Hughes, 2004). While the manager has the final responsibility for completing the task, delegating tasks can also allow him to build on his leadership skills (Nahavandi, 2006) Why is the ability to effectively delegate important to a manager? Effective delegation can increase communication between managers and employees Effectively delegating can develop a balanced workload, and provide time to have a life outside of work Delegating can promote a team environment and lead to increased productivity (Nahavandi, 2006) Why is the ability to effectively delegate important to a company? Those who manage people and tasks cannot manage everything themselves. The worst case scenario is called “reverse delegation” in which the manager switches roles with their direct reports. Delegation insures that tasks can be distributed and delegated to subject matter experts and completed quickly. We “hire” people for a reason; being able to delegate appropriate responsibilities to these individuals frees the manager to do their own job. Subordinates cannot delegate the authority which resides only with a manager. (Callarman, 1988), (Bushardt, Stephen C., Duhon, David L., et. al., abstract, 1991) What CAN be delegated? What CAN be delegated? Do Delegate: Tasks that are non­management tasks. (Fracaro, 2006) Tasks with which you can pass on authority. (Protch, 2006) Tasks that boost an employee’s skills and challenges them. Tasks that are paired with training, or are skill appropriate. (Nahavandi, 2006). – This is also called Trivial Pursuit. What CAN’T be delegated? What CAN’T be delegated? Don’t Delegate: Tasks that an employee does not have the skills to complete. Tasks that are busy work. – This is also called Punishment. – This is also called Dumping. Tasks which you are constantly detailing out instructions for. – This is also called Puppetering. Tasks should not be constantly delegated to the same individual, Tasks that involve personnel issues. (Nahavandi, 2006) Delegation vs. Dumping Delegation vs. Dumping Delegation Examine the tasks. Coordinate the tasks. Assign the tasks. Support and provide feedback. Reward completion Dumping Handing off work that the supervisor does not feel like doing. Passing responsibility and accountability. (Fracaro, 2006), (Shanley, Rohlander & DGR Communications, 1998), (Foster, 2004) Delegation and Ethical Issues Delegation and Ethical Issues Ethical Issue 1. Fair selection process Suggested Solution Tie delegated tasks to Performance Appraisal. Monitor number and type. Clarify limits of authority. Establish check points. Check for law or policy violations. Set up regular feedback. Establish ramifications for failure. Distribute recognition fairly. 2. Scope of responsibility 3. Accountability 4. Feedback & support 5. Failure 6. Recognition (Fracaro, 2004), (Kelly, 2005), (Tornqvist, 1999), (Hughes, 2005), (Wayne, Shore, Bommer, & Tetrick, 2002), (Nahavandi, 2006) Why Managers Have Difficulty Why Managers Have Difficulty Delegating Effectively Modern/Freudian Personality Paradigm – Cognitive Dimension Intuitive/Superego Cognitive/Ego – Affective Dimension Match Task Requirements to Resources Observational & Rational Process Environmental Externality Passion to Motivate, Encourage & Inspire Team Members Predisposition for Communication Internally Based Mediates the Cognitive with Affective Big Picture View, Weaving Leader’s Interest with that of the Team Ethically Based – Intuitive Dimension Affective/Id (Freud, 1925), (Barter, 2002) Why Managers Have Difficulty Delegating Effectively Cognitive Factors – Assess Member Skills & Training – Evaluate Channels of Communication – Task Complexity – Span of Control Affective Factors – Excess Urgency – Time Constraints & Limitations – Leader’s Experience and Knowledge – Relinquishing some Power & Control (Barter, 2002), (Straw, 1988), (Hattrup & Kleiner, 1993), (Kamlish, 2005), (Quick, Nelson, & Quick, 1987) Why Is Effective Communication Why Is Effective Communication a Direct Link to Successful Delegation? Effective communication means delegates are able to understand and carry out a given task. Direct link to successful delegation implies that good communication equals success. Two individuals must establish and maintain bi­directional communication ­ the manager and the delegate ­ in order that the link between communication and delegation is achieved. The open line of communication will create a sense of confidence enabling the delegate to carry out the task(s). Delegates who communicate effectively with one another will create group cohesion and open doors to cooperation. (Nahavandi, 2006) References References Barter, M. (October 2002). “Follow the Team Leader,” Nursing Management, 33 (10), 54­57. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp. Bushardt, Stephen C., Duhon, David L., Fowler, Aubrey R., Jr.. (1991). Management Delegation Myths and the Paradox of Task Assignment. Business Horizons, 34(2), 37. Retrieved , from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 198994). Callarman, William G., McCartney, William W.. (1988, July). Reversing Reverse Delegation. Management Solutions, 33(7), 11. Retrieved , from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 814617). Flanagan, N., Finger, J. (1999). “Recognise Why You Don’t Delegate,” New Zealand Management, 46 (10), p. 8. Retrieved May 15, 2006 from Business Source Elite.. References References Foster, T. (May 2004). “Using Delegation as a Developmental Tool: Methods and Benefits,” Training Journal, 28­32. Retrieved 5/15/06 from: index=0&did=700432041&SrchMode=1&sid=5&Fmt=4&VInst =PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=114772 8826&clientId=65562. Fracaro, K. (September 2004). “Making Delegation Work,” Supervision, 65 (9) 14­16. Fracaro, K. (January 2006). “Releasing the Power within Your Employees,” Supervison, 67 (1), 14­16. Retrieved 5/15/06 from: index=0&did=957659611&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst =PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=114772 8168&clientId=65562 Freud, S. (1925), as translated by Strachey, J. (1963). An Autobiographical Study. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. References References Hattrup, G., & Kleiner, B. (November/December 1993). “How to Establish the Proper Span of Control for Managers,” Industrial Management, 35 (6), 28­29. Norcross, GA: Institute of Industrial Engineers. Hughes, L. (Jan/Feb 2004). “Do’s and Don’ts of Effective Team Leadership,” Women in Business, 56 (1), p. 10. Retrieved May 15, 2006 from Business Source Elite.) Hughes, C. (January 2005). Effective Leaders Delegate. LP/Gas, 65 (1), p. 10. Kamlish, M. (September 2005). “Easing the Burden of a Control Freak,” Financial Management, p. 60. London, UK: Caspian Publishing. Kelly, K. (September 2005). “Shouldering Risks,” FSB: Fortune Small Business, 15 (9) p. 27. References References Lindo, David K (1996, December). Tell them what you expect. SuperVision 57(12). 11­13 Nahavandi, A. (2006). The art and science of leadership (4th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice­Hall. Quick, J.D., Nelson, D.L., & Quick, J.C. (May 1987). “Successful Executives: How Independent?” Academy of Management Executive, 1 (2), 139­145. Briarcliff Manor, NY: Academy of Management. Shanley, A., and Rohlander, G. (December 1998). “Delegate to Succeed; Often confused with ‘dumping’, delegating requires trust and respect. Doing it well can vastly improve efficiency and morale.” Chemical Engineering, 105 (12). Retrieved 5/15/06 from: . References References Straw, J. (Autumn 1988). “Government by Formula,” Public Money & Management. London, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Accountability: Delegation of responsibility and external disclosure in some Swedish companies,” European Accounting Review, 8 (1), 139­156. Wayne, S., Shore, L., Bommer, W., & Tetrick, L. (June 2002). “The Role of Fair Treatment and Rewards in Perceptions of Organizational Support and Leader­Member Exchange,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (3), 590­598. Yates, P. (2002, January 4). “Are You Delegating Effectively?” Retrieved May 17, 2006 from . ...
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