The World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization - The World Trade...

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The World Trade The World Trade Organization: A Progress Organization: A Progress Report Report Tim Josling Stanford Institute for International Studies
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Theme Theme What is the WTO? What is the agenda of the WTO and how is “progress” defined? What are the links with developmental and environmental agendas?
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Outline Outline Origins of the GATT/WTO trade system Negotiating Rounds in the GATT Uruguay Round Achievements The Ministerials: Singapore, Geneva, Seattle, Doha and Cancun August Framework Agreement Short term Challenges Longer Term Options
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Origins of the WTO Origins of the WTO GATT was component of the rebuilt International Economic System in the Post-War Period Bretton Woods (1944) and the IBRD, IMF Havana Charter (1948) and the ITO Ratification Problems in the US (1950) GATT “rescued” as it did not have to be ratified GATT as a Commercial Code of Conduct GATT as a Trade Negotiation Framework
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Tariff-cutting Negotiations Tariff-cutting Negotiations Four Early Rounds (1947-56) Dillon Round (1960-61) – response to EEC Kennedy Round (1964-67) – major tariff cuts Tokyo Round (1973-79) – addressed non-tariff measures Uruguay Round (1986-94) – set up WTO Post-UR agreements (1995-97) – IT, BT, FS Doha Round (2001-2005?) - underway
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The GATT Runs into Problems The GATT Runs into Problems Limited scope of rules limited to goods Sensitive sectors treated differently weak on agricultural subsidies textiles limited by quotas Ineffective dispute settlement process Membership incomplete – few developing countries “Temporary” secretariat GATT “A la Carte” “Codes” not universally accepted
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Uruguay Round Solutions Uruguay Round Solutions Expanded scope of rules Intellectual property (TRIPS) Services (GATS) Investment Policies (TRIMS) Stronger rules for Textiles and Clothing (ATC) Agriculture (URAA and SPS Agreement) DSU strengthens legal system Membership expands (now 148) WTO Established as Successor to GATT “Single Undertaking”
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The World Trade Organization - The World Trade...

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