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chapter01 - Artificial Intelligence Chapter 1 Chapter 1 1...

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Artificial Intelligence Chapter 1 Chapter 1 1
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Outline What is AI? A brief history The state of the art Chapter 1 2
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What is AI? Systems that think like humans Systems that think rationally Systems that act like humans Systems that act rationally Chapter 1 3
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Acting humanly: The Turing test Turing (1950) “Computing machinery and intelligence”: Can machines think ?” -→ Can machines behave intelligently ?” Operational test for intelligent behavior: the Imitation Game AI SYSTEM HUMAN ? HUMAN INTERROGATOR Predicted that by 2000, a machine might have a 30% chance of fooling a lay person for 5 minutes Anticipated all major arguments against AI in following 50 years Suggested major components of AI: knowledge, reasoning, language understanding, learning Problem: Turing test is not reproducible , constructive , or amenable to mathematical analysis Chapter 1 4
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Thinking humanly: Cognitive Science 1960s “ cognitive revolution ”: information-processing psychology replaced prevailing orthodoxy of behaviorism Requires scientific theories of internal activities of the brain – What level of abstraction? “ Knowledge ” or “ circuits ”? – How to validate? Requires 1) Predicting and testing behavior of human subjects (top-down) or 2) Direct identification from neurological data (bottom-up) Both approaches (roughly, Cognitive Science and Cognitive Neuroscience ) are now distinct from AI Both share with AI the following characteristic: the available theories do not explain (or engender) anything resembling human-level general intelligence Hence, all three fields share one principal direction! Chapter 1 5
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Thinking rationally: Laws of Thought Normative (or prescriptive ) rather than descriptive Aristotle: what are correct arguments/thought processes? Several Greek schools developed various forms of logic : notation and rules of derivation for thoughts; may or may not have proceeded to the idea of mechanization Direct line through mathematics and philosophy to modern AI Problems: 1) Not all intelligent behavior is mediated by logical deliberation 2) What is the purpose of thinking ? What thoughts should I have out of all the thoughts (logical or otherwise) that I could have? Chapter 1 6
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Acting rationally Rational behavior: doing the right thing The right thing: that which is expected to maximize goal achievement, given the available information Doesn’t necessarily involve thinking—e.g., blinking reflex—but thinking should be in the service of rational action Aristotle (Nicomachean Ethics): Every art and every inquiry, and similarly every action and pursuit, is thought to aim at some good Chapter 1 7
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Rational agents An agent is an entity that perceives and acts This course is about designing rational agents Abstractly, an agent is a function from percept histories to actions: f : P * → A For any given class of environments and tasks, we seek the agent (or class of agents) with the best performance Caveat: computational limitations make perfect rationality unachievable design best program for given machine resources Chapter 1 8
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