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KNH 188 September 8 Lecture 4 Outline

KNH 188 September 8 Lecture 4 Outline - Lecture 4 Tuesday 8...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 4 Tuesday 8 September So What Is ‘Good Health’? Is it…? “…..merely the slowest possible rate at which one can die.“ or Is it simply “freedom from disease” ? Healthy: World Health Organization (WHO) Healthy: "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity" Who knows the answers to health questions? Who How can we sort out all the information we receive regarding health? Where do we go to find credible information? Where do we go to find credible information? Selecting Credible Sources Selecting Basic assumptions: Basic We do (and must) rely on others for sources of information. We We do not like uncertainty, hence we seek out authorities Scientific Consensus vs. Individual Scientist’s Opinion Who Do You Believe? “BMI May Not Effectively Determine Cardiovascular and Mortality Risk” “BMI Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, MD, from Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, Francisco Lancet Aug 2006 “Rising BMI Linked to Higher Mortality, Even in Overweight Subjects” “Rising Kenneth F. Adams, MD New Eng J Med. Aug 2006 Scientific Consensus : Usually Found in Position Statements Scientific Bodies: AMA, APS, ACSM, HPERD, NSCA etc Governmental Institutions: CDC, NIH etc Healthy People 2010, Surgeon General Report Questions of the Day How do we establish the relationship between Behavior & Health scientifically? What is the nature of the evidence? Chapter 2 Assessing the Impact of Behavior on Health What do we measure to see if anything is having an effect? Dependent Variables Three Potential Dependent Variables for Measuring the Health of a Nation 1. Life Span (Expectancy) 2.Mortality 3. Morbidity Life Expectancy What is difference between sex and gender? Why do men & women differ in life expectancy? Is that true for all nations? Life Expectancy by Race & Sex: What produces the differences? Does the fact that male mammals die earlier than female mammals influence why there is a sex difference? Lifespan: What is the only manipulation that has been shown to increase life span? Calculate the average life expectancy of two different populations. In one half the people lived to 71 and they other half died by age 1. In the second population half lived to 37 the other half lived to 35. Mortality Rates: Death Per Unit of Population Mortality (Death rates): The incidence of death Number of deaths/population or group x 1000 = e.g. Ebola (Hemorrhagic fever) 800/1000 x 100 = 80% or 800 per 1000 die if infected. Not good odds Morbidity (L. morbidus--ill) Amount of illness in a population Prevalence (all cases/time period) e.g. arthritis 3, 248,000/196,907,000 x 1000 = 16.5 per 1000 Incidence rate (new cases per unit time) e.g. Infectious hepatitis 1973 50,749/209,851,000 x 100,000 = 24 cases per 100,000 Sample Problem 1 In 1997 the population of children under the age of 10 in the U.S. was 35,000,000. The number that died from accidental drowning was 750. What was the incidence rate? 750/35,000,000 x 100,000 = 2.14 per 100,000 children Sample Problem 2 In 1999 the population of children under the age of 10 in the U.S. was over 35,000,000. The number that died from accidental gunshots in that year was 31. The incidence rate was …….. 31/35,000,000 x 100,000 = .13 cases per 100,000 Or 16 fold less than a pool Prevalence: The number of existing cases in a population at a specific time Question: What might it mean (i.e. how would you interpret) an increase in the prevalence of a particular disease or condition? Incidence & Prevalence Are Different: A steady increase in the prevalence of diabetes in Denmark does not seem to stem from a rise in new new cases (that would be incidence), but rather from a drop in mortality, according to a report published in the incidence), drop August 16th issue of The Lancet. August Reuters Health Information 2003 Assessing the Impact of Behavior on Health Methods & Types of Information Involved in the Health & Wellness Area Epidemiological & Experimental How would you approach the question: Stress causes hypertension (chronically elevated high blood pressure)? What would you do to support this idea? Who would you examine? Epidemiology The study of the prevalence and spread of disease in a community; the field concerned with determining the specific causes of health problems or diseases in a locality Class questions: turned in ...
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