KNH 188 Smoking Outline

KNH 188 Smoking Outline - Smoking A primary CHD Risk Factor...

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Smoking A primary CHD Risk Factor How do you quantify smoking? Need to know if risk or relationships to various diseases are to be documented. Pack years: packs per day x years of smoking 2 pack per day since age 16, now 30. How many pack years? What are the health risks: Linked to 320,000 deaths CHD is #1: 3x the chance of sudden death with an MI Cancer (Lung, throat etc) Osteoporosis Roughly one of every four fire deaths in 2006 was attributed to smoking materials. In 2006, there were an estimated 142,900 fires, 780 deaths and 1,600 injuries related to smoking. How does smoking harm? How can it lead to CHD? Nicotine as a pharmacological agent: 1.Vasoconstriction—vasospasm? 2. Carbon monoxide 3. Tar and other chemicals (1200)—damage to endothelium? What Is the Economic Impact of Smoking? What do you count? This is cold , I know, but is there any cost savings with smoking? Do smokers pay their way? Does the tobacco industry create employment, income and balance of payments benefits? Does tobacco advertising increase cigarette consumption? Intellectual Honesty Requires Addressing Who Smokes? Is smoking behavior randomly & evenly distributed across the population? NO! Prevalence and demographics Survey research* White African American Hispanic Native American
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* However, salivary cotinine and CO used as validation tools in some studies Who smokes more: men or women? Is smoking equally distributed across all ethnic and racial groups? Do the health consequences match up with the differences in behavior? Prevalence of smoking: 48 million adults & 3.5 million adolescents however other estimates put it at 29 % of population which would give higher numbers 1960: 40% of U.S. 1990: 29% of U.S. 2000: ? but appears to be creeping back up What would be the lowest percent obtainable? Smoking is increasingly concentrated in people with co-factors such as depression, anxiety disorder, ADD, bulima. Smoking Up in College
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KNH 188 Smoking Outline - Smoking A primary CHD Risk Factor...

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