{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Chapter6 - CHAPTER 6 MEMORY YOU KNOW YOU ARE READ FOR THE...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Memory CHAPTER 6 -143- CHAPTER 6 – MEMORY YOU KNOW YOU ARE READ FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO… Introduce the study of memory including the basic processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval as well as current theories of how memory works. Discuss the information-processing theory of memory in detail including the concepts of sensory, short-term, and long-term memory. Identify the basic mechanisms and limitations in the retrieval of information including false memories. Describe Ebbinghaus’s work on forgetting and proposed explanations for forgetting. Explain the biological processes thought to underlie memory and the deterioration of memory. RAPID REVIEW Memory can be thought of as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it, and then retrieves information from storage. All the current models of memory involve the three processes of encoding , storage , and retrieval . Three models or theories about memory are discussed in the text. One is the levels-of-processing model , which proposes that how long a memory will be remembered depends on the depth to which it was processed. A second model is the parallel distributed processing model , which proposes that memories are created and stored across a network of neural circuits simultaneously, or in other words, in a parallel fashion. The third and currently most accepted model of memory is the information- processing model , which proposes that memory is divided into three components – sensory , short term , and long term . Sensory memory is the first stage of memory and involves information from our sensory systems. Visual sensory memory is called iconic memory and was studied extensively by George Sperling through the use of the partial report method. The capacity of iconic memory is everything that can be seen at one time and the duration is around half a second. Eidetic imagery , also known as photographic memory, is the ability to access visual sensory memory over a long period of time. Iconic memory is useful for allowing the visual system to view the surroundings as continuous and stable. Echoic memory is the memory of auditory information and has the capacity of what can be heard at any one moment and has a duration of about two seconds. The information-processing model proposes that information moves from sensory memory to short- term memory through the process of selective attention . This process explains the phenomenon of the cocktail party effect , when you are at a party and hear your name in a conversation across the room. Another name for short-term memory is working memory , and some researchers propose that short-term memory consists of a central control process along with a visual “sketch pad” and auditory “recorder.” George Miller studied the capacity of short-term memory using the digit-span memory test and discovered that people can store an average of seven chunks of information (plus or minus two) in their short-term memory. Chunking is the process of reorganizing the information into meaningful units.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}