Chapter6 - CHAPTER 6 – MEMORY YOU KNOW YOU ARE READ FOR...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 6 – MEMORY YOU KNOW YOU ARE READ FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO… • Introduce the study of memory including the basic processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval as well as current theories of how memory works. • Discuss the information-processing theory of memory in detail including the concepts of sensory, short-term, and long-term memory. • Identify the basic mechanisms and limitations in the retrieval of information including false memories. • Describe Ebbinghaus’s work on forgetting and proposed explanations for forgetting. • Explain the biological processes thought to underlie memory and the deterioration of memory. RAPID REVIEW Memory can be thought of as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it, and then retrieves information from storage. All the current models of memory involve the three processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval. Three models or theories about memory are discussed in the text. One is the levels-of-processing model, which proposes that how long a memory will be remembered depends on the depth to which it was processed. A second model is the parallel distributed processing model, which proposes that memories are created and stored across a network of neural circuits simultaneously, or in other words, in a parallel fashion. The third and currently most accepted model of memory is the informationprocessing model, which proposes that memory is divided into three components – sensory , s hort term, and long term. Sensory memory is the first stage of memory and involves information from our sensory systems. Visual sensory memory is called iconic memory and was studied extensively by George Sperling through the use of the partial report method. The capacity of iconic memory is everything that can be seen at one time and the duration is around half a second. Eidetic imagery, also known as photographic memory, is the ability to access visual sensory memory over a long period of time. Iconic memory is useful for allowing the visual system to view the surroundings as continuous and stable. Echoic memory is the memory of auditory information and has the capacity of what can be heard at any one moment and has a duration of about two seconds. The information-processing model proposes that information moves from sensory memory to shortterm memory through the process of selective attention. This process explains the phenomenon of the cocktail party effect, when you are at a party and hear your name in a conversation across the room. Another name for short-term memory is working memory, and some researchers propose that short-term memory consists of a central control process along with a visual “sketch pad” and auditory “recorder.” George Miller studied the capacity of short-term memory using the digit-span memory test and discovered that people can store an average of seven chunks of information (plus or minus two) in their short-term memory. Chunking is the process of reorganizing the information into meaningful units. The duration of short-term memory is between 10-30 seconds without rehearsal. Maintenance rehearsal describes the process of continuing to pay attention to a piece of information, such as reciting a name over and over again in your head. Long-term memory is the third stage of memory proposed by the information-processing theory and has an essentially unlimited capacity and duration. Information may by encoded into long-term memory through elaborative rehearsal, a way of transferring information by making it meaningful. Long-term memories can be divided into two types, procedural and declarative. Procedural, or nondeclarative, memories are memories for skill and habits, in other words, memories for things people can do. Declarative memories are memories of facts, or things people can know. There are two types of declarative memories, semantic and episodic. Semantic memory is memory for the meanings of words and concepts while episodic memory is the memory of events or “episodes.” Procedural memories appear to be stored in the cerebellum and amygdala, while declarative memories most likely involve the frontal and temporal lobes. Procedural memory is sometimes referred to as i mplicit memory, and Memory -143- CHAPTER 6 declarative memory can be thought of as explicit memory. Explicit memories are easily verbalized, while implicit memories are nearly impossible to state in words. It is not entirely clear how the brain organizes information in long-term memory. The semantic network model suggests that information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion with related concepts physically close to each other. Retrieval describes the process of pulling memories out of long-term memory. A retrieval cue is a stimulus that aids in the process of remembering. When the environment in which you learned an item serves as a retrieval cue, it is referred to as encoding specificity. If an emotional state serves as a retrieval cue, it is called s tate-dependent learning . Information can be retrieved through the process of recall, such as filling in the blanks, or recognition, such as multiple choice questions in which the correct answer only needs to be “recognized.” Not all information can be recalled equally well. The serial position effect describes the finding that information at the beginning and end of a list is more likely to be remembered than the information in the middle. The primacy effect p roposes that the information at the beginning of the list is remembered due to rehearsal, while the recency effect p roposes that the information at the end of the list is remembered due to the fact that it is still in short-term memory. Recognition is usually a much easier task than recall since the retrieval cue is the actual piece of information you are trying to remember, yet retrieval errors are still made when using recognition. A false positive occurs when someone recognizes a piece of information as a memory even though it did not happen. For example, a witness says they saw broken glass at the scene of an accident, when there was no glass broken in the accident. Elizabeth Loftus h as spent over 30 years investigating the reliability of eyewitness memories and has found that what people see and hear about an event after the fact can affect the accuracy of their memories for that event. Automatic encoding is a term used to describe the memory process when we aren’t actively paying attention to the information. A flashbulb memory is a specific type of automatic encoding that occurs when an unexpected and often emotional event occurs. Flashbulb memories typically contain a great deal of information including many details but might not be as accurate as they appear. The retrieval of memories is a much more constructive process than most people assume. Several factors affect the accuracy of information retrieval. One factor is the misinformation effect in which false information presented after an event influences the memory of that event. When suggestions from others create inaccurate or false memories, this is referred to as the false memory syndrome. The false memory syndrome has frequently been observed while people are under hypnosis. Research by Loftus has suggested that in order for an individual to interpret a false event as a true memory, the event must seem plausible and the individual should be given information that supports the belief that the event could have happened to them personally. Hindsight bias is the tendency of people to falsely believe that they would have been able to accurately predict a result. Herman Ebbinghaus was one of the first scientists to systematically study the process of forgetting. Using lists of nonsense syllables, he discovered that most forgetting occurs in the initial hour after the material is learned. He presented his findings in a visual graph called the curve of forgetting. There are at least four different causes for forgetting. Encoding failure occurs when the information does not make it past the initial encoding process and never really becomes a memory. Another possible cause of forgetting is the decay (or disuse) of the memory trace in short-term memory or the disuse of the information in long-term memory. The final two causes of forgetting discussed in the textbook have to do with interference. Proactive interference occurs when information from the past disrupts newly learned information. Retroactive interference occurs when the newly learned information interferes with the memories of the information from the past. Ebbinghaus found he could greatly improve memory if he spaced out his study sessions, a technique called distributed practice, as opposed to “cramming” or trying to learn all the information the night before the exam. It is still unclear exactly how memories are physically stored in the brain. The concept of the physical change that takes place in the brain when memories are formed is called the engram, and scientists continue their search for the engram. In general, there is strong evidence to suggest that long-term procedural memories are stored in the cerebellum, while long-term declarative memories are stored in the frontal and temporal lobes. Storage of short-term memories has been associated with the prefrontal cortex and the temporal lobe. The process of physically storing a memory in your brain is called consolidation Memory -144- CHAPTER 6 and could consist of a number of changes including an increase in receptor sties, increased sensitivity at the synapse, changes on the dendrites, or changes in proteins in the neuron. The hippocampus has been found to play an important role in the formation of new memories. This fact was mainly discovered by observing patients with damage to the hippocampus and noting their inability to form any new memories. A man named H.M. is the most famous of these patients. H.M.’s hippocampi were removed during a surgical procedure to reduce the severity of his epileptic seizures. After the surgery, H.M. could not form any new declarative memories. H.M. could, however, still form new procedural memories. Amnesia is a disorder which is characterized by severe memory loss, such as that of H.M.’s and can take one of two forms. Retrograde amnesia is an inability to retrieve memories from the past, while a nterograde amnesia is an inability to form any new memories. An inability to remember events from the first few years of life has been described as infantile amnesia and may be due to the implicit, or nonverbal, nature of those memories. Alzheimer’s disease is one type of dementia that is associated with severe memory loss. Currently there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease but researchers are working hard to find one. Several possibilities include drugs that block the breakdown of acetylcholine, chemicals within the gingko biloba herb, drugs that stimulate nerve growth, and statins or drugs that lower cholesterol. STUDY HINTS 1. Two of the most important concepts presented in this chapter consist of a three-part model. One concept is the basic processes involved in memory – encoding, storage, and retrieval. The other concept is the information-processing model of memory which consists of sensory, short-term, and long-term memory. Students often get these ideas confused. To help you clarify the concepts, correctly identify the components of the information-processing model in the diagram below. Remember that encoding, storage, and retrieval can happen at each of these stages. List an example of encoding, storage, and retrieval for each stage. Encoding: Storage: Retrieval: Encoding: Storage: Retrieval: Encoding: Storage: Retrieval: 2. Long-term memory can be divided into two basic types of memory – procedural and declarative. Declarative memories can be further broken down into episodic and semantic. To help you understand the difference between these types of memories, come up with a specific memory from your own life and write it in the appropriate box. Memory -145- CHAPTER 6 Long-Term Memories Procedural Procedural Memories Episodic Memories Declarative Semantic Memories Suggested answers for Study Hint 1 Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Encoding: input to sensory systems Storage: second for visual system, 2 sec. For auditory Retrieval: info to STM Encoding: sensory info to STM Storage: maintenance and elaborative rehearsal Retrieval: recognition or recall or to LTM Encoding: STM to LTM Storage: by level of processing Retrieval: recall or recognition Suggested answers for Study Hint 2 Long-Term Memories Procedural Procedural Memories Knowing how to serve a tennis ball Episodic Memories The day that I went to pick up my dog Ozzy Declarative Semantic Memories “Obrigado” is the word for “thankyou” in Portuguese. Memory -146- CHAPTER 6 LEARNING OBJECTIVES 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 What are the three processes of memory and the different models of how memory works? How does sensory memory work? What is short-term memory, and how does it differ from working memory? How is long-term memory different from other types of memory? What are the various types of long-term memory, and how is information stored in long-term memory organized? What kinds of cues help people remember? 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 How do the retrieval processes of recall and recognition differ, and how reliable are our memories of events? How are long-term memories formed, and what kinds of problems do people experience as a result? What is false memory syndrome? Why do we forget? How and where are memories formed in the brain? How does amnesia occur, and what is Alzheimer’s disease? PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. ____________ is defined as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage. a) Classical conditioning b) Operant conditioning c) Learning d) Memory _____________ is retention of memory for some period of time. a) b) c) d) 3. Encoding Storage Retrieval Evaluation 2. Janie is taking an exam in her history class. On the exam there is a question that asks her to state and discuss the five major causes of the Trans-Caspian War (whatever that was!). Janie remembers four of them. She knows there is a fifth but time is up. As Janie is walking down the stairs, all of a sudden, she remembers that fifth point but it is too late. Janie had a problem with a) encoding. b) storage. c) retrieval. d) evaluation. The processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval are seen as part of the ____________ model of memory. a) Information-processing b) levels-of-processing c) parallel distributed processing d) All of the above are correct. The “levels-of-processing” concept of Craik and Lockhart would suggests that which of the following questions would lead to better memory of the word “frog”? a) “Does it rhyme with blog?” b) “Is it in capital letters?” c) “Is it written in cursive?” d) “Would it be found in a pond?” 4. 5. Memory -147- CHAPTER 6 6. In the parallel distributed processing model of memory, a) b) c) d) information is simultaneously stored across a network that stretches across the brain. information is stored simultaneously in unconnected regions of the brain. information is associated in sets of classically conditioned neurons across the neocortex. None of these are correct. 7. The three parts of the information-processing model of memory are a) sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. b) CS, UCS, UR, CR. c) encoding, storage, retrieval. d) shallow, medium, deep processing. Which memory system provides us with a very brief representation of all the stimuli present at a particular moment? a) primary memory b) sensory memory c) long-term memory d) short-term memory Your friend asks you a question, and just as you say “What?” you realize what the person said. Which part of your memory was maintaining your friend’s words? a) iconic sensory memory b) echoic sensory memory c) short-term memory d) long-term memory 8. 9. 10. Someone a short distance away, to whom you have been paying no attention, quietly speaks your name, and suddenly you are attending to that conversation. This is an example of ______. a) Broadbent's process of selective memory b) the Phi phenomenon c) the cocktail party phenomenon d) cue-controlled inhibition 11. ______ is synonymous with short-term memory. a) Shadow memory b) Working memory c) Secondary memory d) Sensory registers 12. Your professor asks you to get up in front of the class and repeat a long list of numbers that she reads to you. If you are not given a chance to repeat the numbers to yourself as she reads them, what is the longest list of numbers you will most likely to be able to remember? a) 2 b) 7 c) 12 d) 25 Memory -148- CHAPTER 6 13. You try to remember a phone number by repeating it over and over to yourself. What type of rehearsal are you using? a) condensed b) permanent c) elaborative d) maintenance 14. Of the following, which is the most similar to the concept of long-term memory? a) a revolving door b) a filing cabinet c) a desk top d) a computer keyboard 15. Long-term memories are encoded in terms of a) sounds. b) visual images. c) meanings of words and concepts. d) all of the above. 16. Procedural memories are to __________ memories as declarative memories are to ________ memories. a) implicit; explicit b) explicit; implicit c) general knowledge; personal facts d) personal facts; general knowledge 17. Which of the following types of LTM are forms of explicit memory? a) procedural b) semantic c) episodic d) both (b) and (c) 18. As a young child, you spent hours on your skateboard. After several years of not skating, you jump on your board as if you never missed a day. The long-term memory of how to skate is an example of what type of memory? a) explicit b) episodic c) semantic d) procedural 19. As you are skating down the street on your skateboard, you think back to the day you accidentally skated into a parked car and had to go the hospital to get stitches. The memory of this event would be described as a(n) __________________ memory. a) procedural b) implicit c) episodic d) semantic Memory -149- CHAPTER 6 20. According to the semantic network model, it would take more time to answer “true” to which sentence? a) “A salmon is an animal.” b) “A salmon is a fish.” c) “A canary is a bird.” d) All of these would take the same time. 21. If memory was like the sea, we could say that ______ is long-term memory, ______ are the memories, and _______ are retrieval cues. a) the sea, fish, hooks b) a boat, worms, fish c) a boat, hooks, worms d) an island, worms, fishing poles 22. Which of the following concepts describes why it is best to take a test in the same room in which you learned the material? a) state-dependent learning b) encoding specificity c) tip of the tongue phenomenon d) cocktail party effect 23. While you were studying for your history final, you were very angry at your roommate for playing her music too loud. If you wanted to maximize your ability to remember the information on the final, what mood should you be in while you are taking the final? a) happy b) sad c) angry d) surprised 24. Under most circumstances, when you are intentionally trying to remember an item of information, _______________ is an easier task than _______________. a) b) c) d) recognition; recall recall; recognition priming; the savings method the savings method; priming 25. When the sound of the word is the aspect that cannot be retrieved, leaving only the feeling of knowing the word without the ability to pronounce it, this is known as _________. a) encoding failure b) extinction of acoustic storage c) auditory decay d) the tip of the tongue effect 26. The test you are taking right now requires which type of memory retrieval process? a) recall b) recognition c) encoding d) echoic Memory -150- CHAPTER 6 27. False positives occur when a person incorrectly “matches” a stimulus that is merely similar to a real memory. One major problem with eyewitness testimony is that a) extinction of auditory memories causes the witness to forget what was said. b) witnesses are prone to habituate to the courtroom and forget what happened. c) false positives can cause eyewitness testimony to be quite inaccurate. d) None of these are true. 28. Is eyewitness testimony usually accurate? a) Yes, because seeing is believing. b) No, because eyewitnesses are not usually honest. c) Yes, because eyewitnesses are very confident about their testimony. d) No, because there is a great possibility of a “false positive” identification. 29. For more than 30 years, the most influential researcher into eyewitness memory has been ______. a) Broadbent b) Sperling c) Loftus d) Treisman 30. Flashbulb memories ______. a) are not subject to periodic revision b) usually concern events that are emotionally charged c) are almost always highly accurate d) usually concern events from early childhood 31. In this view, memories are literally “built” from the pieces stored away at encoding. This view is called ______________. a) constructive processing b) hindsight bias c) adaptation of memory traces d) flashbulb integration 32. Which of the following phenomena provides support for the concept that memories are reconstructed as they are retrieved or remembered? a) tip of the tongue b) hindsight bias c) cocktail party effect d) retrograde amnesia 33. Which of the following is an example of the misinformation effect? a) forgetting where you left your keys b) falsely remembering that a friend was wearing a jacket after being asked what color your friend’s jacket was c) remembering a traumatic event from childhood d) telling someone a lie Memory -151- CHAPTER 6 34. Which of the following statements about hypnosis is NOT true? a) Subjects cannot always distinguish between memories which they have always had and new “memories” recently recovered under hypnosis. b) Hypnotic age regression appears to increase the accuracy of childhood recall. c) The impact of hypnosis on the reliability of later memory depends on the type of question asked. Open-ended questions cause less memory “contamination” than closed-ended, leading questions. d) Some pseudomemories (false memories) suggested by hypnosis do not persist after the hypnosis. 35. Which of the following techniques are used by therapists to implant a false memory? a) hypnosis, drugs, and suggestion b) partial reinforcement, rewards, and punishments c) presentations of images of the person’s problems, presented in a subliminal fashion d) All of these are used. 36. Which of these is viewed as the major problem in the repressed-memory controversy? a) guaranteeing the right to sue alleged abusers b) therapists' unwillingness to help recover memories c) deliberate deception on the part of those who claim abuse d) distinguishing true repressed memories from false memories 37. Ebbinghaus found that information is forgotten a) more rapidly as time goes by. b) gradually at first, then increasing in speed of forgetting. c) quickly at first, then tapering off gradually. d) most quickly one day after learning. 38. Retroactive interference as used in the study of memory refers to when a) older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information. b) newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information. c) the information is not attended to and fails to be encoded. d) information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time. 39. Shalissa has two exams today. One is in French and the other is in history. Last night she studied French before history. When she gets to her history test, all she can remember is French! Shalissa’s memory is suffering from _____________. a) cue-dependent forgetting b) proactive interference c) decay d) retroactive interference 40. In the famous case of H. M., after having part of his brain removed, he could no longer ______. a) pay attention to specific stimuli b) retrieve memories c) form new memories d) make sense of memories Memory -152- CHAPTER 6 41. The physical processes that occur when a memory is formed are called a) consolidation. b) actuation. c) potentiation. d) depolarization. 42. When a person’s ____________is damaged or removed, anterograde amnesia results. a) hippocampus b) prefrontal lobe c) amygdala d) cerebellum 43. Which of these is an example of what has been called infantile amnesia? a) At age 25 Betty can recall only good memories of what happened when she was 4 to 5 years old. b) When he is 10 years old John has no memory of a family vacation that occurred when he was 2 years old. c) When faced with a horrible stressor, some people return to an earlier stage of development such as infancy for the comfort that it provides. d) Despite the fact that Alice began to learn how to play the violin when she was 3, she has very little skill now that she is in her 30s. 44. There currently is a cure for Alzheimer’s disease. a) True. b) False. PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. d Memory involves the three processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval. All three other choices deal with the process of learning. 2. b When you store something, you keep it (or retain it) for a certain period of time. In the study of memory, the term “storage” involves keeping or retaining information for a certain period of time. 3. c Retrieval is the process of pulling information back out of memory. 4. d Encoding, storage, and retrieval are the basic processes for memory and are a component of ALL the theories on exactly how memory works. 5. d The levels-of-processing model proposes that the “deeper” the level of processing, the more likely it is to be remembered. This means that the more meaning or significance you can give to a piece of information, the better you remember it. Associating a frog with the place it lives is the most meaningful association of all the four choices. 6. a The name of the model describes the theory. The parallel distributed model proposes a series of networks that work in parallel in the brain. 7. a As mentioned in Question 4, all models of memory include the concepts of encoding, storage, and retrieval. The aspects of the information-processing model that make it unique are the concepts of sensory, short-term, and long-term memory. 8. b Sensory memory is the briefest of all the memory stages proposed by the information-processing model. Visual sensory memory lasts only about one-half a second. 9. b Echoic memory is the memory of sounds. It should be easy to remember if you just think of an “echo” for echoic. Memory -153- CHAPTER 6 10. c 11. b 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. b d b d a 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. d d c a a 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. b c a d b c d c The cocktail party effect is a demonstration of our selective attention abilities. Obviously, you are processing all of the information but you are only “attending to” a small portion of it. One place this phenomenon is likely to occur is at a party, thus the name “cocktail party effect.” Short-term memory is thought to be the place where memories either enter longterm memory or disappear. The idea is that if we work with the information, using memory techniques or rehearsal strategies, then the information will be retained in long-term memory. The amount of information we can retain in short-term memory was studied by George Miller and presented in a paper called “The magic number 7 plus or minus two.” Maintenance rehearsal is one of the most basic methods to remember something and involves simply repeating the information over and over. Elaborative rehearsal is more complex and involves forming an association with the information. Long-term memory is where information is stored for an indefinite amount of time. If you look at the choices for this question, the only item that accommodates the storage of anything for a long period of time is a filing cabinet. Memories are encoded in terms of all these components. One theory suggests that each component of a memory is actually stored in a different place in the brain. Procedural memories (such as how to ride a bike) are hard to verbalize just as implicit memories are hard to verbalize. If something is explicit, that means it is very clear and obvious, just as declarative memories (like the memory of your first kiss) are very easy to identify. Semantic memories are memories of facts such as the capital of the United States. Episodic memories are memories of episodes, such as your last birthday celebration. Procedural memories are memories for procedures (or habits and skills). This is a memory of a specific episode. In selection a you are having to move across two categories – salmon to fish to animal. Whereas in selections b and c, you are only moving across one category – salmon to fish and canary to bird. Try to consider the most important aspects of long-term memory, memories, and retrieval cues. Long-term memory can hold a large amount of information like the sea, a boat, or an island. The memories are what are found in long-term memory. We find fish in the sea but we don’t typically store a large number of worms or hooks in a boat or worms in an island. Just to make sure you are correct, retrieval cues are used to pull out the memories, hooks can pull out worms. None of the other options make sense (fish don’t pull out worms, worms don’t pull out hooks, and fishing poles don’t pull out worms). So the correct choice is a. Encoding specificity refers to your physical surroundings and how they can act as retrieval cues for information. State-dependent learning refers to your emotional state and how being in the same mood during retrieval as you were during the encoding process can help you remember more information. Recognition simply requires “recognizing” the right answer. This means you are given all the options and you simply select the correct choice. Tip of the tongue phenomena gives us one clue as to how retrieval works. You are given the right answer and you simply have to select it from choices a-d. The work of Elizabeth Loftus has demonstrated that false positives among eyewitnesses are more frequent than we used to believe. Although eyewitness testimony can be accurate, there is always the possibility of false positives. Elizabeth Loftus is one of the most influential researchers into false memories. Memory -154- CHAPTER 6 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. b a b b b a d c b b c a a b b Flashbulb memories can be altered over time. Constructive processing assumes that all the pieces of a memory are stored in different locations and “re-assembled” every time the memory is retrieved. In hindsight bias, our memory of a past event is influenced by new information. The misinformation effect occurs when a leading question or statement actually alters your memory of an event. Studies on memories retrieved under hypnosis have failed to find an increase in accuracy for recalling childhood events. Therapists have mainly used hypnosis, drugs, or suggestion to implant false memories. Often an individual cannot distinguish between their own true memories and false memories. Most forgetting occurs within the first hour after the material is learned. Retroactive interference occurs when the new information gets in the way or “interferes” with the already learned material. Proactive interference occurs with the already learned material interferes with the new information. After H.M’s hippocampus was removed, he lost the ability to move memories from short-term to long-term memory. The term consolidation refers to the physical basis of memories. Researchers are still working to determine the precise details of consolidation. Anterograde amnesia is described as the inability to form any new memories. Just like the case of H.M., when a person’s hippocampus is removed or damaged, anterograde amnesia is often the result. Infantile amnesia refers to the inability to remember events that occurred during the first one to two years of your life. Although researchers have made a tremendous amount of progress toward our understanding of Alzheimer’s disease, there still is no cure for the disease. CHAPTER GLOSSARY Alzheimer’s disease amnesia anterograde amnesia automatic encoding chunking cocktail party effect consolidation constructive processing curve of forgetting decay declarative memory the most common form of dementia in elderly people, leads to severe cognitive loss due to the deterioration of brain tissue. disorder characterized by severe memory loss. loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories. tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long-term memory with little or no effortful encoding. the process of regrouping material in memory in order to combine smaller pieces into one larger unit. the ability to focus our listening attention on a single conversation among a large amount of background noise. the changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when an engram is formed. referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised, or influenced by newer information. a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually. loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used. type of long-term memory containing information that is conscious and known. Memory -155- CHAPTER 6 distributed practice disuse echoic memory eidetic imagery elaborative rehearsal Elizabeth Loftus encoding encoding failure encoding specificity spacing the study of material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods. another term to describe memory decay which suggests that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear. the brief memory of something a person has just heard. the ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more. a method of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way. psychologist working on memory and how it can be influenced, she is known for her work with false memories. the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems. failure to process information into memory. the tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information (such as surroundings or physiological state) available when the memory is first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved. type of declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others, such as daily activities and events. memory that is consciously known, such as declarative memory. a condition in which a person has a memory that is objectively false but strongly believed to be true. error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory. type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it. 1920-present. published a paper in 1956 called “The magical number seven plus or minus two” which described the capacity of short-term memory without rehearsal. psychologist who first studied iconic memory and discovered the duration of iconic memory is around half a second. famous patient who lost the ability to form new memories after surgical removal of his hippocampi. German psychologist who was a pioneer in the study of human memory. Made extensive use of nonsense syllables in his studies. the tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newer information, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event. visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second. memory that is not easily brought into conscious awareness, such as procedural memory. the inability to retrieve memories from much before the age of 3. model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory, in a series of 3 stages. model of memory that assumes information that is more “deeply processed,” or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time. episodic memory explicit memory false memory syndrome false positive flashbulb memory George Miller George Sperling H.M. Herman Ebbinghaus hindsight bias iconic memory implicit memory infantile amnesia information-processing model levels-of-processing model Memory -156- CHAPTER 6 long-term memory maintenance rehearsal memory memory trace or engram misinformation effect nonsense syllables parallel distributed processing model primacy effect proactive interference procedural (nondeclarative) memory recall recency effect recognition retrieval retrieval cue retroactive interference retrograde amnesia selective attention semantic memory semantic network model sensory memory serial position effect short-term (working) memory state-dependent learning storage the system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently. practice of saying some information to be remembered over and over in one’s head in order to maintain it in short-term memory. an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage. physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed. the tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself. consonant-vowel-consonant combinations that can be pronounced but have no semantic meaning. a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time, over a large network of neural connections. tendency to remember information at the beginning of a body of information better than the information that follows. memory retrieval problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information. type of long-term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses. These memories are not conscious but are implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior. type of memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be “pulled” from memory with very few external cues. tendency to remember information at the end of a body of information better than the information ahead of it. the ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact. getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used. a stimulus for remembering. memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information. loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past. the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input. type of declarative memory containing general knowledge, such as knowledge of language and information learned in formal education. model of memory organization which assumes that information is stored in the brain in an connected fashion, with concepts that are related to each other stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related. the very first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems. tendency of information at the beginning and end of a body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body of information. the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used. the ability to retrieve information more readily when a person is in the same emotional state they were in when the information was learned. holding onto information for some period of time. Memory -157- CHAPTER 6 ciccarellich06b.qxd 11/9/08 3:18 PM Page 158 levels-of-processing model focuses on the depth of processing associated with specific information deeper processing associated with longer retention focuses on simultaneous processing of information across multiple neural networks 6.6 6.1 p. 225 an active system that receives, organizes, stores, and retrieves information encoding parallel distributed processing (PDP) model R L Memory three basic steps storage retrieval Maintenance rehearsal External Sensory Events Sensory memory Selective attention Shortterm memory Encoding Longterm memory Models of Memory information-processing model focuses on the way information is processed through different stages of memory Retrieval All information lost within a second or so. Unrehearsed information is lost in about 15 to 30 seconds. Information is retained indefinitely although some information may be difficult to retrieve. 6.2–6.5 p. 236 6.1 The Information-Processing Model (proposes three stages that vary both in duration and capacity; information must be processed effectively at earlier stages before long-term storage occurs) iconic (visual) 1 sec to 4 sec echoic (auditory) chunking and maintenance rehearsal can be used to increase capacity and duration, respectively Fo (orig rese sensory memory capacity limited, duration short-term and working memory capacity limited (7 2 items), duration 12–30 secs without rehearsal long-term memory capacity unlimited, duration relatively permanent associated with physical changes in the brain; hippocampus and cortex involved in consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory different types, based on information stored; different brain areas associated with each organized in terms of related meanings and concepts semantic network model parallel distributed processing model Has skin Can move around Eats Animal Breathes Long-term memory Fren Stud Has wings Can fly Bird Has feathers Fish Has fins Can swim Has gills Declarative memory (Explicit memory) Procedural memory (Implicit memory) Motor skills, habits, classically conditioned reflexes Span Has long thin legs Can sing Canary Is yellow Ostrich Is tall Can't fly Shark Can bite Is dangerous Salmon Is pink Is edible Swims upstream to lay eggs Episodic memory Events experienced by a person Semantic memory Facts, general knowledge Stud Memory 158 CHAPTER 6 ciccarellich06b.qxd 11/9/08 3:18 PM Page 159 6.6–7 getting it out p. 243 retrieval cues encoding specificity state-dependent learning Retrieval of Long-Term Memories automatic encoding strong emotional associations can lead to vivid and detailed “flashbulb” memories recall vs. recognition recall: few or no external cues required recognition: match incoming sensory information (e.g., see or hear) to what is already in memory 6.8–9 p. 247 The Reconstructive Nature of Long-Term Memory t y memory retrieval problems misinformation effect reliability of memory retrieval constructive processing of memories memories are rarely completely accurate and become less accurate over time Loftus and others have suggested that memory retrieval is a constructive process; memories are “built” at time of retrieval 6.10 p. 254 Forgetting (originally studied by Ebbinghaus (1913), research produced forgetting curve) Table 6.1 REASONS Reasons for Forgetting DESCRIPTION The information is not attended to and fails to be encoded. Information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time. Older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information. Newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information. distributed practice produces far better retrieval than massed practice (cramming) Encoding Failure Decay or Disuse Proactive Interference Retroactive Interference encoding failure nonattended information is not encoded into memory memory trace decay over time, if not used neuronal connections can decay 6.11–12 p. 254 procedural memories short-term memories semantic and episodic long-term memories changes at receptor (long-term potentiation) changes in dendrites interference other information interferes with accurate retrieval different brain areas are associated with different types of memory several physical changes in brain are associated with memory formation (consolidation) Proactive Interference French, learned beforehand, interferes proactively Study French Study Spanish Spanish Test hippocampus plays a vital role in the formation of new declarative long-term memories al memory memory) ills, habits, itioned reflexes Retroactive Interference Spanish, learned afterwards, Interferes retroactively Study French Study Spanish French Test Memory and the Brain amnesia organic amnesia infantile amnesia Memory 159 CHAPTER 6 ciccarellich06b.qxd 11/9/08 3:18 PM Page 160 6.1–6.3 Models of Memory _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Figure 6.1 Three-Stage Process of Memory Maintenance rehearsal External Sensory Events Sensory memory Selective attention Shortterm memory Encoding Longterm memory Retrieval All information lost within a second or so. Unrehearsed information is lost in about 15 to 30 seconds. Information is retained indefinitely although some information may be difficult to retrieve. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Memory 160 CHAPTER 6 ciccarellich06b.qxd 11/9/08 3:18 PM Page 161 Figure 6.2 Iconic Memory Test Figure 6.3 Digit-Span Test 6825 Rows of Letters LHTY EPNR SBAX Tone Signaling Which Row to Report High tone Medium tone Low tone 57214 359721 9254638 28371569 732496851 Number of letters recalled 10 8 6 4 2 0 .15 .3 .5 1.0 Whole Report Level 6547893217 _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Delay in signal (seconds) _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 6.4–6.5 Long–Term Memory _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Memory 161 CHAPTER 6 ciccarellich06b.qxd 11/9/08 3:18 PM Page 162 Figure 6.5 Types of Long-Term Memories Long-term memory Declarative memory (Explicit memory) Procedural memory (Implicit memory) Motor skills, habits, classically conditioned reflexes Episodic memory Events experienced by a person Semantic memory Facts, general knowledge _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Memory 162 CHAPTER 6 ciccarellich06b.qxd 11/9/08 3:18 PM Page 163 Figure 6.6 An Example of a Semantic Network Has skin Can move around Eats Animal Breathes Has wings Can fly Bird Has feathers Fish Has fins Can swim Has gills Has long thin legs Can sing Canary Is yellow Ostrich Is tall Can't fly Shark Can bite Is dangerous Salmon Is pink Is edible Swims upstream to lay eggs _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.6–6.7 Retrieval _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Memory 163 CHAPTER 6 ciccarellich06b.qxd 11/9/08 3:18 PM Page 164 Figure 6.7 Recall of Target Words in Two Contexts 40 Percentage of words recalled correctly 30 20 10 0 Learned on land, recalled on land Learned underwater, recalled underwater Learned on land, recalled underwater Learned underwater, recalled on land _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Figure 6.8 Serial Position Effect Primacy effect 70 60 Recency effect Percent correct 50 40 30 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 13 Position in list _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Memory 164 CHAPTER 6 ciccarellich06b.qxd 11/9/08 3:18 PM Page 165 6.8–6.9 Reconstructive Nature of Memory _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.10 Forgetting _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Memory 165 CHAPTER 6 ciccarellich06b.qxd 11/9/08 3:18 PM Page 166 Figure 6.9 Curve of Forgetting 100 Percentage remembered Immediate recall 80 60 40 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 15 20 Elapsed time (days) 25 31 20 minutes 1 hour 9 hours _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Figure 6.11 Proactive and Retroactive Interference ___________________________________________________ Proactive Interference French, learned beforehand, interferes proactively Study French Study Spanish Spanish Test ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Retroactive Interference Spanish, learned afterwards, Interferes retroactively Study French Study Spanish French Test ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Memory 166 CHAPTER 6 ciccarellich06b.qxd 11/9/08 3:18 PM Page 167 Table 6.1 Reasons for Forgetting Table 6.1 REASON Reasons for Forgetting DESCRIPTION Encoding Failure Decay or Disuse The information is not attended to and fails to be encoded. Information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time. Older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information. Newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information. Proactive Interference Retroactive Interference _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.11–6.12 Biology of Memory _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Memory 167 CHAPTER 6 ciccarellich06b.qxd 11/9/08 3:18 PM Page 168 NOTES _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Memory 168 CHAPTER 6 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 12/26/2010 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Dan during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online