Chapter9 - CHAPTER 9 – MOTIVATION AND EMOTION YOU KNOW...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 9 – MOTIVATION AND EMOTION YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO… • Introduce the concept of motivation and discuss the major theories proposed to explain motivated behavior. • Discuss the specific motivation of hunger and examine the physiological and social components in addition to common eating disorders. • Describe the three elements of emotion and present six theories on how emotions are processed. • Explain what the positive psychology movement is. RAPID REVIEW Motivation is the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met. When motivation comes from outside the self it is called extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, if a person does something because it is satisfying in some internal manner, the motivation is called intrinsic motivation. Several theories have been proposed to explain the process of motivation including the theories of instinct, drive-reduction, needs, arousal, incentive, humanistic, and self-determination. Instinct approach suggests that people are motivated by biologically determined internal forces. Unfortunately, instinct theory only describes behavior and is unable to explain why people did what they did. The drive-reduction approach proposes that a need, or requirement, produces a drive and that people act in order to reduce these drives. The drives can be primary drives such as hunger and thirst or acquired (secondary) drives such as the need for money. The rationale for drive-reduction includes the idea that the body has a tendency to try to maintain a steady state referred to as homeostasis. When the body is out of balance, a need develops and the tension provides the drive to reduce the need and return the body to a state of balance. Drive-reduction theory, however, cannot explain why people would increase their internal tension by doing things like parachuting out of an airplane. Need theory attempts to explain motivation by understanding three specific needs, the need for achievement (nAch), need for affiliation (nAff), and need for power (nPow). Arousal theory suggests that people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal or tension. The level of arousal is achieved by increasing or decreasing stimulation and is driven by a proposed stimulus motive. The Yerkes-Dodson law d emonstrates that for an easy task, performance is best when arousal is a little higher than average, whereas for a difficult task, performance is best when arousal is a little below average. Individuals who consistently seek out high levels of arousal have been labeled as s ensation seekers . According to incentive approaches of motivation, peoples actions are determined by the rewards or i ncentives for their behaviors. Expectancy-value theories are a subset of incentive theories that assume a person’s expectancies, or beliefs about what will happen in the future, need to be taken into account in order to understand his or her motivation. Abraham Maslow was a major proponent of the humanistic approach to motivation and proposed a hierarchy of needs that individuals must fulfill before they can reach the highest need of selfactualization where a person reaches his or her fullest potential. According to Maslow, basic needs such as hunger and thirst must be satisfied before the higher level needs can be achieved. Also, Maslow referred to the times in which self-actualization is attained as peak experiences. Another theory of motivation similar to Maslow’s is the self-determination theory that proposes that there are three inborn and universal needs that humans work to satisfy. These needs are the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. One specific area of motivation that has been studied extensively is the motivation to eat, also known as hunger. The hunger drive can be divided into physiological and social components. Physiologically, insulin and glucagons are hormones that regulate the level of glucose in the bloodstream. Insulin increases blood sugar levels which leads to feelings of hunger. Several areas in the hypothalamus also play an important role in regulating eating behavior, perhaps by influencing the specific weight that our bodies try to maintain, or our weight set point. Another factor that influences the weight set point is the basal metabolic rate, which decreases as we age, causing a corresponding increase in the weight set Motivation and Emotion -227- CHAPTER 9 point. The social factors that influence hunger include the times of day when a person typically eats, using food to reduce stress or provide comfort, and the appeal of a tempting dessert item. Some problems associated with eating behaviors are o besity, in which a person weighs 20 percent over his or her ideal weight; anorexia nervosa, in which a person weighs 15 percent less than his or her ideal weight; and bulimia, in which a person develops a cycle of overeating, followed by deliberate vomiting. A hormone called leptin may play a role in controlling how hungry an individual feels. Emotions can be defined as the “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior, and an inner awareness of feelings. As can be seen in the definition, emotions can be divided into three components: physiology, behaviors, and subjective experience. Different emotions have been found to be associated with different physiological reactions. The amygdala has been found to play a role in the regulation of emotions in humans as well as other animals. The behaviors of emotions include facial expressions, body movements, and other actions. Research has supported the idea that at least seven basic facial expressions are recognized and mimicked in cultures around the world. However, the display rules, or exactly when, where, and how these emotions can be expressed, appears to differ across cultures. The subjective experience of emotions involves the cognitive process of assigning a label, such as happy, to your feelings. Several theories have been developed in an attempt to explain the process humans use to label our emotions. Common sense theory suggests that a stimulus causes a particular emotion to occur which then leads to the behavioral and physiological response. The James-Lange theory of emotion proposes that a stimulus leads to a particular physiological response which then leads to the subjective experience of an emotion. The Cannon-Bard theory suggests that the physical and subjective experience of emotions occur at the same time. A stimulus leads to activation of the thalamus which then simultaneously activates the sympathetic nervous system and higher cortical areas which interpret the signal as a particular emotion. Schachter and Singer proposed the cognitive arousal theory which proposes that after a stimulus occurs our body has a physical reaction and we make a cognitive appraisal of the situation. Based on feedback from both these sources, we then come up with a subjective label for the emotion we are experiencing. The facial feedback hypothesis assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain regarding the emotion being expressed and can then intensify or even cause the emotion. Lazarus’s cognitive-mediational theory o f emotion suggests that following a stimulus, we engage in a cognitive appraisal of the situation which then triggers a subjective experience of an emotion followed by a physiological response. The positive psychology movement is a new perspective in psychology that recommends shifting the focus of psychology away from the negative and more towards the positive. In his book The Pursuit of Happiness, David G.Myers, a major proponent of positive psychology, suggests a number of ways to try to increase your emotional response of happiness. Some of the suggestions include acting happy, getting enough sleep, and exercising. STUDY HINTS 1. By far, the most confusing concept of this chapter is keeping track of the theories of emotion. The following hints are designed to help you work through this process. To start with, try filling in the following table correctly. Remember when we are discussing emotions there are several components we are interested in. The theories vary according to which component comes first. The components are • physiological experience of emotion (increased heart rate, sweating, etc.) • subjective experience of emotion (the “feeling” of happiness, sadness, or anger) • cognitive appraisal (using your thought process to assess the situation) • subcortical brain activity (not considered cognitive types of action) Using these key components, fill in the following table. The first row has already been filled in for you. Motivation and Emotion -228- CHAPTER 9 Theory Event stimulus (dog barking) 1st response subjective experience (fear) 2nd response physiological experience (increased heart rate) 3rd response Common Sense James-Lange Theory Cannon-Bard Theory SchachterSinger Theory Facial Feedback Hypothesis Cognitivemediational Theory 2. Now look over the chart you just completed. Which of the theories are similar and which are different? Can you come up with a way to group the theories together based on similarity? As you learned in the chapter on memory, processing the information in this manner will help you better retain the material and make retrieval for the exam an easier process. Try grouping the theories into the following three categories: Category 1: Physiological experience occurs after you “feel” the emotion _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Category 2: “Feeling” the emotion occurs after the physiological changes _______________________________________________________ Motivation and Emotion -229- CHAPTER 9 _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Category 3: “Feeling” the emotion and the physiological changes occur at the same time _______________________________________________________ Suggested answers for Question 1 Theory Event stimulus (dog barking) 1st response subjective experience (fear) physiological (increased heart rate) subcortical brain activity physiological response (increased heart rate) facial expression of fear cognitive appraisal (there is a scarylooking dog barking at me) 2nd response physiological experience (increased heart rate) subjective (fear) 3rd response Common Sense James-Lange Theory stimulus (dog barking) Cannon-Bard Theory stimulus (dog barking) physiological and subjective at the same time cognitive appraisal (there is a scarylooking dog barking at me) subcortical brain activity subjective experience (fear) subjective experience (fear) physiological experience (increased heart rate) SchachterSinger Theory stimulus (dog barking) Facial Feedback Hypothesis stimulus (dog barking) Cognitivemediational Theory stimulus (dog barking) subjective experience (fear) Suggested answers for Question 2 Category 1: Physiological experience occurs after you “feel” the emotion ______common sense theory_______________________________ ______cognitive-mediational theory_________________________ Motivation and Emotion -230- CHAPTER 9 Category 2: “Feeling” the emotion occurs after the physiological changes ______James-Lange theory_________________________________ _______Schachter-Singer theory of cognitive arousal____________ ________facial feedback hypothesis________________________ Category 3: “Feeling” the emotion and the physiological changes occur at the same time ________Cannon-Bard theory____________________________________ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 How do psychologists define motivation, and what are the key elements of the early instinct and drive-reduction approaches to motivation? What are the characteristics of the three types of needs? What are the key elements of the arousal and incentive approaches to motivation? How do Maslow’s humanistic approach and self-determination theory explain motivation? What happens in the body to cause hunger, and how do social factors influence a person’s experience of hunger? 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 What are some problems in eating behavior, and how are they affected by biology and culture? What are the three elements of emotion? How do the James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theories of emotion differ? What are the key elements in cognitive arousal theory, the facial-feedback hypothesis, and the cognitive-mediational theory of emotion? What is the positive psychology movement? 9.10 PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. The process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met is called a) motivation. b) emotion. c) achievement. d) synergy. Which statement about motivation is true? a) b) c) d) 3. A motive energizes and directs behavior. We are always aware of motivational processes. Different motives always lead to different behaviors. Two people motivated by the same factor will satisfy that motive through similar means. 2. In the early 20th century, psychologists were inclined to explain motivated behavior by attributing it to ______. a) emotions b) incentives c) learned responses d) instincts Motivation and Emotion -231- CHAPTER 9 4. William McDougal proposed ___ instincts for humans early in the 20th century. a) 5 b) 9 c) 18 d) 24 Each of the following is a valid criticism of instinct theories of motivation EXCEPT ______. a) human behavior is rarely rigid, inflexible, and found throughout the species b) instinct theories name behaviors without pinpointing their origins c) they were the dominant explanation for human behavior early in the 20th century d) description is more important than explanation. Salmon swimming upstream to spawn are an example of ______. a) incentives b) motives c) instinct d) needs Drives serve to activate responses that are aimed at reducing the drive, thereby returning the body to a more normal state called a) stability. b) equilibrium. c) homeostasis. d) physiological balance. Some psychologists believe that behavior is motivated by the body's attempts to achieve a state of balance in which the body functions effectively, or in ______. a) reciprocity b) acquiescence c) propinquity d) homeostasis Primary drives are ______. a) exceptions to the drive-reduction principle b) learned c) influenced by stimuli within the body d) influenced by stimuli outside the body 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Monica put all her time and energy into getting into the acting club because her main goal in life “was to be a famous star!” Monica’s drive to be famous was a(n) ______ drive. a) primary b) reflexive c) tertiary d) secondary 11. Homeostasis is like a a) scale. b) thermostat. c) carburetor. d) bicycle. Motivation and Emotion -232- CHAPTER 9 12. Your text discusses all of the following needs EXCEPT a) achievement. b) affiliation. c) power. d) sex. 13. Which of the following is correct for people high in need achievement? a) They look for careers which make a lot of money. b) They look for careers and hobbies that allow others to evaluate them. c) They look for careers which require little education. d) They look for careers which will make them famous. 14. According to Carol Dweek, need achievement is closely related to a) genetics. b) geography. c) luck. d) personal factors. 15. In arousal theory, people are said to have a(n) _________ level of tension. a) ultimate b) lower c) optimal d) high 16. Indiana Jones goes off to foreign lands in search of artifacts hidden in dangerous places and guarded by fierce protectors. Dr. Jones would be described as _______________ in arousal theory. a) a sensation seeker b) nAff c) fool-hardy d) high nPow 17. As a class assignment you are required to collect advertising slogans and describe how they may be relevant to concepts in psychology. You select the Jell-O slogan, "There's always room for Jell-O," and describe in class that it is relevant to one of the theories of motivation. Which theory? a) instinctive b) incentive c) drive-reduction d) optimum-level 18. One interesting thing about incentive approaches is that incentives a) exist inside a narrow collection of internal stimuli. b) exist independently of any need or level of arousal. c) exist inside a narrow collection of internal stimuli. d) only work for adults. 19. Jill is motivated by money and the things money will bring her. Jack is motivated by doing good things, and his incentives are based on that idea and belief. What theory incorporates both these types of motivational causes? a) sensation seeking theory b) entity theory c) increment theory d) expectancy-value theory Motivation and Emotion -233- CHAPTER 9 20. According to Abraham Maslow, developing one's full potential to its fullest extent results in a) safety. b) self-esteem. c) belongingness. d) self-actualization. 21. Which of the following does NOT show the motivating power of self-actualization? a) Joan wants to live in a house with all the modern conveniences so that she may have more time to seek fulfillment from her career and family. b) Frank feels that he is a good salesman because he likes what he does and knows how to do it well. c) Barbara knows that, as a teacher, she is a good person because she realizes the importance of imparting knowledge to society. d) Mark works hard as an attorney only so that he can attract more clients, more money, and be secure in the knowledge that his family can survive. 22. Self-determination theory (SDT) best fits which type of motivation? a) the need for affiliation b) intrinsic motivation c) extrinsic motivation d) a mastery goal 23. Intrinsic motivation is defined as a) the pursuit of an activity for external rewards. b) the pursuit of an activity for its own sake. c) the pursuit of an activity to relieve the state of tension caused by deprivation. d) the pursuit of an activity in order to be judged favorably by others. 24. One factor in hunger seems to be the increase in _______ that occurs after we begin to eat. a) cholesterol b) lipoproteins c) insulin d) glucose 25. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) may be involved in a) increasing hunger. b) decreasing hunger. c) processing low fats. d) food allergies. 26. The lateral hypothalamus (LH) may be involved in a) stoppage of eating. b) the onset of eating. c) processing low fats. d) food allergies. 27. Anna Nicole weighed about 125 lbs most of her adult life. However, it seemed like whenever Anna Nicole gained weight it was easy to lose and get back to 125. But when she wanted to go below 125 it took forever and even the slightest deviation from her diet got her back to 125. What explanation would you give Anna Nicole? a) Use better diet products. b) Start a reality TV show. Motivation and Emotion -234- CHAPTER 9 c) d) Her weight, 125, is her set point. Leave it alone. Her BMR is causing all the problems. 28. The concept of “comfort food” suggests that food a) may be influenced by social factors. b) has genetic ways to comfort. c) may release hormones and neurotransmitters that are comforting. d) is reflexive. 29. Which component of hunger is most likely contributing to the fact that sometimes a person who has just had a late breakfast will still feel hungry at noon? a) social b) behavioral c) physiological d) intrinsic 30. Obesity is defined as someone who is at least ___ percent or more over the ideal body weight. a) 10 b) 20 c) 30 d) 40 31. Which individual has the highest risk for developing anorexia nervosa? a) lower-class 26-year-old European man b) an upper-class 16-year-old American boy c) a lower-class 26-year-old European woman d) an upper-class 16-year-old American girl 32. An eating disorder characterized by binges of eating followed by self-induced vomiting is called ______. a) anorexia nervosa b) bulimia c) Karposi’s anemia d) Huntington’s chorea 33. All of the following statements are correct about bulimia EXCEPT a) individuals with bulimia have a distorted view of how much food is too much food. b) bulimia is not as damaging as anorexia nervosa. c) binge eating and vomiting are common symptoms. d) individuals with bulimia have a distorted body image. 34. You are a hormone. You are secreted into the bloodstream by fatty tissue and your job is to signal the hypothalamus that the body has enough food, reducing appetite and increasing the feeling of being full. Who are you? a) adrenalin b) peptic acid c) leptin d) lippotor 35. What Latin word connects both motive and emotion? a) emote b) move Motivation and Emotion -235- CHAPTER 9 c) d) mote mate 36. Paul Ekman and his colleagues gathered abundant evidence supporting the universality of _______ basic facial expressions of emotion. a) three b) five c) seven d) nine 37. According to Ekman, which of the following is NOT one of the universal facial expressions? a) disgust b) fear c) contempt d) shame 38. To explain the human universality and variability of emotions, Ekman and his associates a) developed a concept of “display rules,” which are rules for emotional expression. b) developed an inter-observer system to make sure that observers defined expressions reliably. c) interviewed all participants in order to assess unexpressed feelings and motivations. d) monitored the brain waves of participants to determine which hemisphere had higher activation. 39. Which one of the following is NOT one of the three elements of emotion discussed in the text? a) physiology b) labeling c) behavior d) environment 40. Which theory states that a stimulus triggers physiological changes that produce emotion? a) Cannon-Bard theory b) James-Lange theory c) Schachter-Singer theory d) commonsense view of emotions 41. Which statement is most consistent with the James-Lange theory of emotion? a) “I run because I'm afraid.” b) “I'm laughing because I am happy.” c) “I'm crying because I'm sad.” d) “I'm anxious because I perspire.” 42. What is the correct sequence of events in emotional response according to the Cannon-Bard theory? a) b) c) d) stimulus --> emotion --> physiological changes stimulus --> physiological changes --> emotion physiological changes --> stimulus --> emotion stimulus --> emotion AND physiological changes (simultaneous) 43. “I think I’m afraid, therefore I am afraid” is a statement that is most consistent with which of the following theories? a) the James-Lange theory b) activation theory Motivation and Emotion -236- CHAPTER 9 c) d) cognitive arousal theory the Cannon-Bard theory 44. You just finished a cup of very strong coffee which causes your body to have a general feeling of arousal. That afternoon you attend the funeral of a friend. According to Schachter and Singer, which of the following would most likely occur? a) Your emotion would be happy in spite of the funeral because of the arousal. b) You would work very hard to control your emotion. c) Your emotion would be sad since the context would affect your labeling. d) Your emotional state would be impossible to predict. 45. According to the theory of emotion proposed by Schachter and Singer, what is the most important determinant of your subjective experience of emotion? a) physiological reactions b) cognitive appraisal of the situation c) facial expressions d) intensity of the stimulus 46. In the classic study of emotion conducted by Schachter and Singer, after receiving the epinephrine, the subjects placed in the room with the angry man reported feeling a) angry. b) happy. c) both angry and happy. d) No emotions were reported. 47. Which recent study below casts doubt on the facial feedback hypothesis? a) a woman with a paralyzed face still responded emotionally to slides meant to stimulate emotions b) a blind woman still responded emotionally to slides meant to stimulate emotions c) a woman paralyzed from the waist down still responded emotionally to slides meant to stimulate emotions d) a woman with Down syndrome still responded emotionally to slides meant to stimulate emotions 48. According to the facial feedback hypothesis, if you would like to make yourself feel more happy you should a) spend time with friends. b) talk to a counselor. c) think about all the positive aspects of your life. d) smile. 49. I see a dog but it is behind a fence and I don’t have anything to worry about so I feel calm” is a statement that is most consistent with which of the following theories? a) James-Lange theory b) Cannon-Bard theory c) Schachter-Singer theory d) cognitive-mediational theory 50. According to the cognitive-mediational theory, which factor would be most important in determining whether you feel nervous when asked to speak in front of the class? a) your physiological reaction to the request b) activation of subcortical brain activity Motivation and Emotion -237- CHAPTER 9 c) d) your cognitive appraisal of the situation your change in blood pressure 51. Positive psychology is best defined as a) psychology which only focuses on positive test results (that is, those tests that actually show a difference between two groups). b) a movement in psychology which emphasizes the positive aspects of the human experience as opposed to the negative. c) a movement in psychology that attempts to incorporate simple mathematical functions as a means of understanding human behavior. d) an area in psychology that promotes a theory for treating depressed patients in which the patient is encouraged to think positively. 52. Which of the following is NOT a suggestion given by David Myers in his book The Pursuit of Happiness? a) Spend time alone. b) Take control of your time. c) Nurture your spiritual self. d) Keep a gratitude journal. PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. a This is the definition in the text. If you answered b, then you are confusing emotion with motivation. 2. a This is simply the definition of motive. 3. d Instinct theory was one of the first proposed theories of motivation in psychology. Be careful not to confuse incentive with instincts! 4. c McDougal proposed a total of 18 basic instincts. 5. c This is not a criticism but simply a statement. For d, the criticism was that description is LESS important than explanation. 6. c Instincts are innate biologically determined behaviors. 7. c Homeostasis is the term psychologists and physiologists use to refer to the body’s state of balance. Equilibrium means the same thing but is not the term used by psychologists. 8. c Homeostasis is a sense of balance. 9. c These internal stimuli would include things such as hunger or thirst. 10. c Secondary drives are drives that we acquire through learning. The drive to be famous is learned. 11. b A is not correct because a scale only has one direction. 12. d The three needs discussed with regard to motivation were the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power. 13. b High achievers need feedback from others. 14. d There was no mention of genetics in her theory, but there was considerable discussion about an individual’s sense of self and views on intelligence. 15. c Arousal theory argues that arousal should be neither too high nor too low. 16. a His actions indicate that he needs a higher level of arousal than most people. 17. b Incentive theory suggests that we often eat food items because of their reward value and not simply because we are hungry. 18. b Incentives motivate behavior whether or not we have a specific need and regardless of our arousal level. 19. d Expectancy value theory states that the values of a person determine his or her motivation levels. Motivation and Emotion -238- CHAPTER 9 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. d d b b c b b c a a b d b b c b c d a d b d c c c b a a d d c Self-actualization is at the top of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This is the only situation in which the person is focusing on basic needs for himself and his family. In all the other examples, the individuals were focused on growth needs. Self-determination theory is characterized by intrinsic motivations. All the other motivations are based on external factors. Intrinsic motivation deals with forces within the individual. Insulin is associated with feelings of hunger and is related to blood sugar levels. When the ventromedial hypothalamus was removed in experimental animals, the animals no longer controlled their eating and became extremely obese. When the lateral hypothalamus was removed in experimental animals, the animals stopped eating and had to be force-fed food. The set point is the level of weight the body tends to maintain. Social factors in hunger include the social cues associated with food. Social factors can have a strong impact on feelings of hunger. This percentage was discussed in your textbook and arrived at by health professionals. According to government statistics, white upper-class females in the U.S. show the highest prevalence rates for anorexia. This is the definition given in the textbook. Note that the vomiting distinguishes bulimia from anorexia. Although the damage from bulimia is different than that from anorexia, it is still a very dangerous disorder. Leptin appears to be the hormone that causes you to feel full. This is the definition given in your textbook. The research found seven facial expressions that appear to be universal. Shame was not found in all cultures. The seven facial expressions he did find were anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, sadness, and contempt. Ekman found that display rules tend to vary across cultures, whereas the recognition of basic emotions tends to be universal. Emotion was broken down into its physical, behavioral, and subjective (or labeling) components. The James-Lange theory states that the changes in our body come first, followed by our subjective experience of an emotion. The physiological change comes before the experience of the emotion. Cannon-Bard believed the subjective and physiological experience occurred simultaneously. The cognitive aspect (or thinking component) is the factor that determines your emotions according to the cognitive arousal theory. According to Schachter and Singer, the coffee causes an arousal and then you seek environmental cues to come up with a label for your arousal. See the answer to number 44. In accordance with Schachter and Singer’s theory, the participants use the environmental cues of an angry co-subject to determine that their own arousal was due to anger as well. If her face is paralyzed, she would not be able to send feedback to her brain regarding her facial expression and thus her emotions would be significantly reduced according to the facial feedback hypothesis. The facial feedback hypothesis proposes that our brain receives feedback on our facial expressions which then serves to enhance whatever emotion we are expressing. The cognitive-mediational theory believes that we first assess the situation before we have a subjective experience of emotion or a physiological reaction. See the answer to number 49. Motivation and Emotion -239- CHAPTER 9 51. 52. b a This is the definition given in your textbook. Myers suggests spending time with others and those you care about. CHAPTER GLOSSARY Abraham Maslow acquired (secondary) drives amygdala anorexia nervosa arousal theory of motivation basal metabolic rate bulimia Cannon-Bard theory of emotion cognitive arousal theory cognitive-mediational theory common sense theory display rules drive drive-reduction theory emotion expectancy-value theories extrinsic motivation facial feedback hypothesis glucagons hierarchy of needs homeostasis 1908-1970. American psychologist who was a major proponent of the humanistic movement in psychology. those drives that are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approval. brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear. a condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15 percent below the ideal body weight or more occurs. theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation. the rate at which the body burns energy when the organism is resting. a condition in which a person develops a cycle of “binging” or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and “purging” or deliberately vomiting after eating. theory in which the physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the same time. theory of emotion in which both the physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion is experienced. theory of emotion in which a stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reaction. idea held by most people that a stimulus leads to the subjective experience of an emotion which then triggers a physiological response. learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings. a psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension. approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs which cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal. the “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and an inner awareness of feelings. a type of incentive theory that assumes the actions of humans cannot be predicted without understanding the beliefs, values, and the importance that a person attaches to those beliefs and values at any given moment. type of motivation in which a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from or external to the person. theory of emotion which assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion. hormones that are secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by increasing the level of glucose in the bloodstream. a theory of motivation proposed by Maslow which suggests that as people meet their basic needs they seek to satisfy successively higher needs as laid out in the hierarchy. the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state. Motivation and Emotion -240- CHAPTER 9 humanistic theory of motivation hypothalamus incentive theory of motivation incentives instinct approach of motivation instincts insulin intrinsic motivation James-Lange theory of emotion leptin motivation need need for achievement (nAch) need for affiliation (nAff) need for power (nPow) needs theory of motivation obesity peak experiences positive psychology primary drives Schachter and Singer self-actualization self-determination theory (SDT) sensation seeker stimulus motive weight set point Yerkes-Dodson law theories of motivation which focus on human potential and the drive to be the best a person can be. small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland, responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex. theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to the external stimulus and its rewarding properties. things that attract or lure people into action. approach to motivation that assumes people are governed by instincts similar to those of other animals. the biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exist in both people and animals. a hormone secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by reducing the level of glucose in the bloodstream. type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner. theory in which a physiological reaction leads to the labeling of an emotion. a hormone that, when released into the bloodstream, signals the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food and reduces the appetite while increasing the feeling of being full. the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met. a lack of some material (such as food or water) that is required for survival of the organism. a need which involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals, not only realistic ones but also challenging ones. the need for friendly social interactions and relationships with others. the need to have control or influence over others. theory of motivation that examines the three specific needs for achievement, affiliation, and power. condition in which a person weighs 20 percent or more over their ideal weight. according to Maslow, times in a person’s life during which selfactualization is temporarily achieved. a viewpoint that recommends shifting the focus of psychology away from the negative aspects to a more positive focus on strengths, well-being, and the pursuit of happiness. those drives that involve needs of the body such as hunger and thirst. two psychologists responsible for proposing the cognitive arousal theory of emotions. according to Maslow, the seldom-reached point at which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential. theory of human motivation in which the social context of an action has an effect on the type of motivation existing for the action. someone who needs more arousal than the average person. a motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation. An example of this motive is curiosity. the particular level of weight that the body tries to maintain. predicts that a certain level of arousal will be motivating, but too much arousal or too little arousal will decrease motivation. The optimal level of arousal appears to depend on the individual and the difficulty of the task. Motivation and Emotion -241- CHAPTER 9 ciccarellich09b.qxd 11/9/08 4:08 PM Page 242 9.5 9.1–2 types p. 363 intrinsic: actions are rewarding or satisfying in and of themselves extrinsic: actions are performed because they lead to some sort of reward Increased hunger Eat Raised glucose Lowered glucose Don’t eat Diminished hunger W Motivation (process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met) need drive reduction primary drives secondary (acquired) drives instinct biologically determined/innate patterns of behavior old approach: instincts are mainly descriptions, not explanations; idea that some behavior is hereditary remains an important focus psychological needs psychological needs have been highlighted in some theories (e.g., McClelland) Dweck suggests that the need for achievement is linked to a person’s view of self (locus of control) 9.7 9.3–4 p. 369 Approaches to Understanding Motivation arousal need for stimulation Good Level of performance Difficult task Easy task arousal theory suggests people have an optimal level of tension that they work to maintain a moderate level is most commonly sought, but that level can range from low to high (sensation seeking) Transcendence needs: to help others achieve self-actualization Self-actualization needs: to find self-fulfillment and realize one’s potential Poor Low Level of arousal High incentive things that attract or lure people into action, most often due to rewarding properties based in part on principles of learning early work by Tolman, Lewin, and Rotter focused on expectancy-values or how our beliefs, values, and importance we attach to these affect our actions Aesthetic needs: to appreciate symmetry, order, and beauty Cognitive needs: to know, understand, and explore Esteem needs: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition humanistic based primarily on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; primary, basic needs must be met before higher levels can be met Alderfer’s modification self-determination theory Belongingness and love needs: to be with others, be accepted, and belong Safety needs: to feel secure and safe, out of danger Physiological needs: to satisfy hunger, thirst, fatigue, etc. Motivation and Emotion 242 CHAPTER 9 ciccarellich09b.qxd 11/9/08 4:08 PM Page 243 9.5–6 hunger p. 377 impacted by insulin response; insulin (normally released more after onset of eating) reduces level of glucose in bloodstream (resulting in lower blood sugar and increased hunger); glucagons increase level of glucose ventromedial area of the hypothalamus may be involved in stopping eating when glucose level goes up; lateral hypothalamus appears to influence onset of eating when insulin level goes up person’s weight set point and basal metabolic rate are tied to hypothalamus, and the hormone leptin appears to affect appetite hunger and eating behaviors are influenced by social cues and convention (e.g., eating at certain times), culture, and gender Why People Eat maladaptive eating obesity: body weight 20% or more over ideal (based on height); anorexia nervosa bulimia social influences on “thinness” and fear of being fat impact prevalence rates across various cultures Table 9.3 Possible Signs of Eating Disorders Dramatic weight loss in a relatively short period of time Obsession of calories and fat content of food Hiding food in strange places Hair loss, pale appearance to the skin Bruised or callused knuckles, bloodshot eyes with light bruising under the eyes Frequent trips to the bathroom following meals Obsession with continuous exercise 9.7–9 p. 387 physiological arousal is created by the sympathetic nervous system and is associated with brain activity in specific areas (e.g., the amygdala) and right or left hemisphere activity Wearing baggy clothes to hide body shape or weight loss Reading books about weight loss and eating disorders Complaints of often feeling cold Stimulus First response Second response Common sense theory “I’m shaking because I’m afraid.” Snarling dog FEAR Conscious fear ANS arousal emotional expressions can vary across cultures but some expressions seem to be universal; display rules also vary across cultures and according to gender subjective labeling of emotion is largely a learned response, influenced by both language and culture James-Lange theory “I’m afraid because I’m shaking.” Snarling dog ANS arousal, changes in body FEAR Conscious fear Emotion (is “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by physiological arousal, specific expressive behavior, and inner awareness of feelings) Lazarus’s cognitive-mediational theory based on ideas from Darwin, the facial feedback hypothesis James-Lange theory Cannon-Bard theory cognitive arousal theory (Schacter and Singer) Cannon-Bard theory “I’m shaking and feeling afraid at the same time.” ANS arousal, changes in body Snarling dog Subcortical brain activity FEAR Conscious fear Schachter’s cognitive arousal theory “This snarling dog is dangerous and that makes me feel afraid.” Cognitive appraisal FEAR Conscious fear Snarling dog ANS arousal, changes in body Facial feedback theory ANS arousal in face Facial expression Cognitive interpretation of face motions FEAR Various Theories of Emotion have been suggested, each with a slightly different focus and interpretation Lazarus’s cognitivemediational theory Appraisal of threat FEAR Bodily response Motivation and Emotion 243 CHAPTER 9 ciccarellich09b.qxd 11/9/08 4:08 PM Page 244 9.1–9.2 Motivation and Needs _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Figure 9.1 Homeostasis ___________________________________________________ Increased hunger Eat Raised glucose ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Lowered glucose Don’t eat Diminished hunger 9.3–9.4 Arousal, Incentive and Humanistic Approachs _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Motivation and Emotion 244 CHAPTER 9 ciccarellich09b.qxd 11/9/08 4:08 PM Page 245 Figure 9.2 Arousal and Performance ___________________________________________________ Good Level of performance ___________________________________________________ Difficult task Easy task ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Poor Low Level of arousal High ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Table 9.1 Sample Items from the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire Table 9.1 Sample Items from the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire SENSATION SEEKING SCALE ITEM I sometimes do “crazy” things just for fun. I prefer friends who are excitingly unpredictable. I am an impulsive person. Before I begin a complicated job, I make careful plans. I usually think about what I am going to do before doing it. Source: Adapted from Zuckerman, M. (2002). High High High Low Low _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Motivation and Emotion 245 CHAPTER 9 ciccarellich09b.qxd 11/9/08 4:08 PM Page 246 Figure 9.3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Transcendence needs: to help others achieve self-actualization Self-actualization needs: to find self-fulfillment and realize one’s potential Aesthetic needs: to appreciate symmetry, order, and beauty Cognitive needs: to know, understand, and explore Esteem needs: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition Belongingness and love needs: to be with others, be accepted, and belong Safety needs: to feel secure and safe, out of danger Physiological needs: to satisfy hunger, thirst, fatigue, etc. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 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_________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Motivation and Emotion 246 CHAPTER 9 ciccarellich09b.qxd 11/9/08 4:08 PM Page 247 9.5–9.6 Hunger _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table 9.2 Average Basal Metabolic Rates for a Female and Male Table 9.2 AGE RANGE Average Basal Metabolic Rates for a Female and Male AGES 10–18 AGES 19–30 AGES 31–60 AGES 61–80 Female (51 2 ft.) 1,770* 2,140 1,720 2,071 1,623 1,934 1,506 1,770 Male (6 ft.) *Numbers in the table represent the number of calories a person needs to consume each day to maintain body weight (without exercise). _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 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_________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Motivation and Emotion 247 CHAPTER 9 ciccarellich09b.qxd 11/9/08 4:08 PM Page 248 Table 9.3 Possible Signs of Eating Disor ders Table 9.3 Possible Signs of Eating Disorders Dramatic weight loss in a relatively short period of time Obsession with calories and fat content of food Hiding food in strange places Hair loss, pale appearance to the skin Bruised or callused knuckles, bloodshot eyes with light bruising under the eyes Frequent trips to the bathroom following meals Obsession with continuous exercise Wearing baggy clothes to hide body shape or weight loss Reading books about weight loss and eating disorders Complaints of often feeling cold _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.7–9.9 Emotion _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Motivation and Emotion 248 CHAPTER 9 ciccarellich09b.qxd 11/9/08 4:08 PM Page 249 Figure 9.5 Facial Expressions of Emotion a. b. c. d. e. f. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 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_________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Motivation and Emotion 249 CHAPTER 9 ciccarellich09b.qxd 11/9/08 4:08 PM Page 250 Figure 9.12 Comparison of Theories of Emotion Stimulus First response Second response Common sense theory “I’m shaking because I’m afraid.” Snarling dog FEAR Conscious fear ANS arousal James-Lange theory “I’m afraid because I’m shaking.” Snarling dog ANS arousal, changes in body FEAR Conscious fear Cannon-Bard theory “I’m shaking and feeling afraid at the same time.” Snarling dog Subcortical brain activity ANS arousal, changes in body FEAR Conscious fear Schachter’s cognitive arousal theory “This snarling dog is dangerous and that makes me feel afraid.” Cognitive appraisal FEAR Conscious fear Snarling dog ANS arousal, changes in body Facial feedback theory ANS arousal in face Facial expression Cognitive interpretation of face motions FEAR Lazarus’s cognitive-mediational theory Appraisal of threat FEAR Bodily response 9.10 Positive Psychology _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Motivation and Emotion 250 CHAPTER 9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/26/2010 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Dan during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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