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Chapter9 - CHAPTER 9 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION YOU KNOW YOU...

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Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -227- CHAPTER 9 – MOTIVATION AND EMOTION YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO… Introduce the concept of motivation and discuss the major theories proposed to explain motivated behavior. Discuss the specific motivation of hunger and examine the physiological and social components in addition to common eating disorders. Describe the three elements of emotion and present six theories on how emotions are processed. Explain what the positive psychology movement is. RAPID REVIEW Motivation is the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met. When motivation comes from outside the self it is called extrinsic motivation , on the other hand, if a person does something because it is satisfying in some internal manner, the motivation is called intrinsic motivation . Several theories have been proposed to explain the process of motivation including the theories of instinct, drive-reduction, needs, arousal, incentive, humanistic, and self-determination. Instinct approach suggests that people are motivated by biologically determined internal forces. Unfortunately, instinct theory only describes behavior and is unable to explain why people did what they did. The drive-reduction approach proposes that a need , or requirement, produces a drive and that people act in order to reduce these drives. The drives can be primary drives such as hunger and thirst or acquired (secondary) drives such as the need for money. The rationale for drive-reduction includes the idea that the body has a tendency to try to maintain a steady state referred to as homeostasis . When the body is out of balance, a need develops and the tension provides the drive to reduce the need and return the body to a state of balance. Drive-reduction theory, however, cannot explain why people would increase their internal tension by doing things like parachuting out of an airplane . Need theory attempts to explain motivation by understanding three specific needs, the need for achievement (nAch), need for affiliation (nAff) , and need for power (nPow) . Arousal theory suggests that people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal or tension. The level of arousal is achieved by increasing or decreasing stimulation and is driven by a proposed stimulus motive . The Yerkes-Dodson law demonstrates that for an easy task, performance is best when arousal is a little higher than average, whereas for a difficult task, performance is best when arousal is a little below average. Individuals who consistently seek out high levels of arousal have been labeled as sensation seekers . According to incentive approaches of motivation, peoples actions are determined by the rewards or incentives for their behaviors. Expectancy-value theories are a subset of incentive theories that assume a person’s expectancies, or beliefs about what will happen in the future, need to be taken into account in order to understand his or her motivation.
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