Chapter12 - CHAPTER 12 – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY YOU KNOW YOU...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 12 – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO… • Describe the role social influence plays on conformity, compliance, and obedience. • Discuss the issues of social cognition including the formation and development of attitudes, impressions, and attributions. • Introduce concepts of social interaction including prejudice, discrimination, interpersonal attraction, aggression, and altruisim. RAPID REVIEW Social psychology is the scientific study of how a person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others. Social psychology can be broadly divided into the areas of social influence, social cognition, and social interaction. Social influence is the process in which the presence of other people influences the behavior, feelings, and thoughts of an individual. Conformity involves changing one’s own behavior to more closely match the actions of others. In 1951 Solomon Asch conducted a classic experiment on conformity by having subjects judge the length of a line after hearing a group of confederates all report an obviously incorrect answer. Asch found that the subjects conformed to the group answer around one-third of the time and that conformity increased as the group size increased, up to a group of four confederates. In a later study, Asch found that conformity greatly decreased when at least one confederate gave the right answer. Groupthink is a type of conformity in which people feel it is more important to maintain the group’s cohesiveness than to consider the facts more realistically. Social influence can also be used to describe the phenomenon of compliance, which occurs when people change their behavior as a result of another person or the group asking or directing them to change. Consumer psychology is an area of psychology that studies how people get other people to buy things. There are a number of techniques that people use to obtain the compliance of others including the foot-in-the-door technique, in which compliance with a small request is followed by a larger request, and the door-in-the-face technique, which is the process of making a large request which is almost always refused and then a smaller request that is often agreed to. The door-in-the-face technique relies on the norm of reciprocity, which states that if someone does something to you, you should do something in return. Two additional compliance techniques include the lowball technique in which the cost of the commitment is increased after the commitment is already made and the that’s-not-all technique in which an offer is made and before the individual can make a decision, something “extra” is added to the offer. In compliance, an individual changes his or her behavior because someone asks him or her; in o bedience, an individual changes his or her behavior because an authority figure gives him or her an order. Stanley Milgram conducted one of the most famous experiments on obedience in which he measured the number of volts a participant would administer to another participant simply because the experimenter instructed him or her to do so. In reality, no electrical shocks were being administered. Milgram found that about two-thirds of the subjects (65 percent) administered electrical shocks up to a lethal level of 450 volts when instructed to do so. The presence of others can also influence how well an individual performs a specific task in a process. The positive influence of others on performance is called social facilitation, while the negative influence is sometimes called social impairment. If the task is easy, the presence of others seems to improve performance, but if the task is difficult, the presence of others actually has a negative impact on performance. Social loafing describes the tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working in a group as opposed to working alone. Social cognition deals with the ways people think about other people and includes attitudes, impressions, and attributions. An attitude can be defined as a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain idea, person, object, or situation. Attitudes are composed of the way people feel, act, and think. The affective component describes the feelings associated with attitudes, the behavior component describes the actions, and the cognitive component describes the thoughts. Attitudes have been found to be only weak predictors of actual behavior. Attitude formation occurs in or as a learning Social Psychology -293- CHAPTER 12 process that occurs through direct contact, direct instruction, interaction with others, and vicarious (or observational) learning. Persuasion is the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation. Factors that influence the effectiveness of persuasion include the source, the message, and the target audience. The elaboration likelihood model examines how likely it is that an individual will elaborate on a persuasive message and what the outcome of the elaboration will most likely be. When people attend to the content of the message, the model describes it as central-route processing, and when people pay attention to information outside of the message content itself, it is referred to as peripheral-route processing . Cognitive dissonance is a sense of discomfort that occurs when a person’s behavior does not match up with that person’s attitudes. When a person experiences cognitive dissonance, he or she typically changes the conflicting behavior to match the attitude, changes the attitude to match his or her behavior, or forms new cognitions to justify his or her behavior. I mpression formation involves the process of forming the first knowledge that a person has concerning another person, in other words, the “first impression.” One component of impression formation involves social categorization, which is the assignment of a person to a category based on characteristics the person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past. Social categorization can often result in stereotypes, or a set of characteristics that people believe are shared by all members of a particular social category. People often form their own categories based on i mplicit personality theories, or sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are all related. Most implicit personality theories are formed in childhood. The final aspect of social cognition discussed in the textbook is attribution, or the process of explaining one’s own behavior and the behavior of others. Fritz Heider originally described attribution theory and divided attributions into two categories: situational causes were explanations that relied on external causes and dispositional causes assume behavior is the result of some internal factor. The fundamental attribution error is the most well-known bias of attribution and is the tendency for some people to almost exclusively use dispositional attributes to explain other people’s behavior. Social interaction, or the relationship between people, is the third main area of study in the field of social psychology. When a person holds an unsupported and often negative attitude about the members of a particular group it is called a prejudice, and when a person acts differently towards a person based on that attitude it is called discrimination. The creation of in-groups and o ut-groups can often intensify discrimination. The realistic conflict theory states that prejudice and discrimination will be increased between groups that are in conflict. Jane Elliot used her second-grade classroom to demonstrate the power of prejudice and discrimination by dividing her class based on the color of the students’ eyes and observing the effects. Conflicts between groups tend to increase as pressures and stresses increase. Often the prejudice exists because of the need for a scapegoat, a person or group who serves as the target for the frustrations and negative emotions of the group with the prejudiced attitude. Several theories have been proposed to explain the formation and persistence of prejudice. Social identity theory suggests that the three processes of social categorization, social identification, and social comparison are involved in the formation of prejudice attitudes. Stereotype vulnerability refers to the effect that a person’s knowledge of someone else’s stereotyped opinion can have on that person’s behavior. The resulting feeling of anxiety is referred to as stereotype threat . The negative impact of stereotype threat on an individual’s performance can actually cause a person to act in the way that the stereotype predicts, thus confirming an outside observer’s prejudice attitude. Self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when a person acts according to his or her existing beliefs and his or her actions make it more likely that his or her beliefs are confirmed. The best defense against prejudice is becoming informed about people who are different from you. Equal status contact, in which all individuals involved have the same amount of power in the situation, is crucial for reducing prejudice. Educators have attempted to create situations of equal status in the classroom by setting up jigsaw classrooms, in which students have to work together to reach a specific goal. Another area of social interaction discussed in your textbook is interpersonal attraction, or liking or having the desire for a relationship with someone else. Several factors are involved in the attraction of one person to another including physical attractiveness, proximity (or how close a person is to you physically), similarity, and reciprocity of liking (or liking someone who Social Psychology -294- CHAPTER 12 likes you). Robert Sternberg proposed a theory of love that contains three components: intimacy, passion, and commitment. He felt that seven types of love could be described by various combinations of these three components. Two of Sternberg’s proposed types of love are romantic love and companionate love. A very different type of social interaction is that of violence. Aggression is defined as any behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person. Social psychologists have examined the role of both biology and the environment on aggression. Twin studies have shown a higher correlation of aggression levels in identical twins than in fraternal twins. Certain areas of the brain have been found to control aggressive responses, and testosterone levels are related to aggression. However, a large portion of human aggression is influenced by learning. Several studies have suggested that taking on a particular social role can lead to an increase in aggressive behavior. A number of studies have also supported the link between exposure to violent media and aggression. The final area of social interaction discussed in your textbook is prosocial behavior, or socially desirable behavior that benefits others rather than bringing them harm. Altruism is a specific type of prosocial behavior in which an individual helps someone else with no expectation of reward. Sometimes the presence of other people can decrease the likelihood of prosocial behavior as can be seen in the bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility. Bibb Latane and John Darley conducted a series of experiments that found that participants were less likely to respond to an emergency situation where other people were present than when they were alone. Some of the decisions an individual must make when deciding whether to offer help or not include noticing the situation, defining the situation as an emergency, taking responsibility, planning a course of action, and taking action. Technically, a cult refers to any group of people with a particular religious or philosophical set of beliefs and identities; however, most people associate the term cult with a group of people whose beliefs are so different from the mainstream that they are viewed with suspicion. 1. STUDY HINTS The text introduces four common methods that are used to gain the compliance of another person. In order to better understand the differences among these methods, assume that you are trying to get your friend to come pick you up and then go shopping at the mall with you. In the space below, come up with an example of how you might get your friend to comply with your request using each of the techniques listed. Technique Example Foot-in-the-door Door-in-the-face Lowball That’s-not-all Social Psychology -295- CHAPTER 12 2. Social psychology contains a large number of well-known researchers along with the famous studies they carried out. It is important to be able to remember which researcher goes with which study. Next to the researchers listed below, briefly describe the experiment they carried out along with the topic they studied. In the final column, come up with a mnemonic to help you remember the information. Researcher Experiment Topic Mnemonic Solomon Asch Stanley Milgram Jane Elliot Latané and Darley Philip Zimbardo LEARNING OBJECTIVES 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 What factors influence people to conform to the actions of others? How is compliance defined, and what are four common ways to gain the compliance of another? What factors make obedience more likely? What are the three components of an attitude, how are attitudes formed, and how can attitudes be changed? How do people react when attitudes and behavior are not the same? What are social categorization and implicit personality theories? 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 How do people try to explain the actions of others? How are prejudice and discrimination different? Why are people prejudiced, and how can prejudice be stopped? What factors govern attraction and love, and what are some different kinds of love? How is aggressive behavior determined by biology and learning? What is altruism, and how is deciding to help someone related to the presence of others? Why do people join cults? Social Psychology -296- CHAPTER 12 PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. Vince has always believed children deserve the best prenatal care available. During a class discussion, he hears the first of several speakers express very negative attitudes toward spending tax money on prenatal care for the poor. When it is his turn to speak, he voices an opinion more in keeping with the previous speakers. Vince's behavior is an example of a) compliance. b) persuasion. c) conformity. d) obedience. The following researcher conducted a series of studies on conformity that involved having a subject judge the length of three lines after a group of confederates all reported an obviously incorrect answer. a) Jane Elliot b) Stanley Milgram c) Philip Zimbardo d) Solomon Asch _____________ occurs when people begin to think that it is more important to maintain a group’s cohesiveness than to objectively consider the facts. a) Groupthink b) The lowball technique c) Obedience d) Social loafing All of the following are causes for groupthink EXCEPT a) the belief that the group can do no wrong. b) the belief that the group is invulnerable. c) the belief that opposition to the group is unsound. d) openness to differing opinions. At the supermarket, a demonstrator gives away free samples of a new pizza. He also gives each taster a coupon worth $1 off his or her grocery bill. This manufacturer is depending on the social process of ________ to increase sales. a) norm of reciprocity b) deindividuation c) group polarization d) social facilitation Selena is trying to get her boyfriend to wash the dishes for her. To start with, she asks her boyfriend to cook dinner for her. When her boyfriend refuses, she asks, “Well, will you at least wash the dishes then?” To which he readily agrees. Selena has just used the __________________. a) foot-in-the-door technique b) door-in-the-face technique c) lowball technique d) that’s-not-all technique Changing one’s behavior due to a direct order of an authority figure is referred to as a) compliance. b) obedience. c) conformity. d) persuasion. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Social Psychology -297- CHAPTER 12 8. Imagine 100 individuals are asked to take part in a replication of Milgram's famous study on obedience. How are these 100 people likely to respond? a) The majority would administer 450 volts as instructed. b) The majority would immediately realize the use of deception and leave. c) Most of the women would refuse to obey, whereas almost all of the men would obey. d) Most of the participants would work together to force the experimenter to end the experiment. A teacher decides against assigning group projects in which all group members get the same grade. What social psychological phenomenon might the teacher be concerned about? a) conformity b) social loafing c) social influence d) social facilitation 9. 10. Ashley has practiced her drum routine over and over. When she gets up to play it at the recital in front of 100 people, she performs it better than she ever has. Her improved performance is an example of a) social compliance. b) persuasion. c) social facilitation. d) social impairment. 11. Which of the following is the best example of the behavioral component of an attitude? a) b) c) d) Bea feels recycling is a great concept. Bob is upset when he hears a corporation plans to build a polluting plant near his home. Bill struggles to understand the arguments both sides present in a debate over a new manufacturing plant. Betty writes a letter to her senator asking for support of a law making corporations responsible for the pollution they cause. 12. Which of the following is NOT a factor that influences attitude formation? a) direct contact with an individual b) DNA inherited from your parents c) instructions from your parents d) observing someone else’s actions 13. Kerry's positive attitude toward China, even though she has never been there, seems to be related to the fact that her mother is Chinese and talks about China all the time with Kerry. Which method of attitude formation is involved in this example? a) direct contact b) direct instruction c) interaction with others d) classical conditioning 14. Which communicator would likely be most persuasive? a) an attractive person who is an expert b) a moderately attractive person who is an expert c) an attractive person who has moderate expertise d) a moderately attractive person who has moderate expertise Social Psychology -298- CHAPTER 12 15. _____________ describes the situation in which people attend to the content of a message. a) Central-route processing b) Cognitive dissonance c) Social facilitation d) Peripheral-route processing 16. Which of the following was a finding in the classic study by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)? a) Those who got $1 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did those who got $2. b) Those who got $20 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did those who got $1. c) Paid groups said the task was less boring than did nonpaid groups. d) Women performed the tasks for less money than men. 17. Which of the following represents an example of cognitive dissonance? a) a boy learns how to ride a bicycle without the training wheels b) a father telling his daughter that he will really only be proud of her if she gets all A’s like she did last semester c) a student stays up all night to study for an upcoming exam d) a woman who is arguing that it is morally wrong to kill animals for food becomes upset when she is asked to explain why she is wearing a leather belt and leather shoes 18. What is the term for the process of developing an opinion about another person? a) social interaction b) stereotyping c) impression formation d) interpersonal judgment 19. Toni sees a picture of the new international exchange student and notices that the student looks happy, so Toni automatically assumes that he is also friendly. This automatic assumption about the student’s personality is an example of a) central-route processing. b) implicit personality theory. c) cognitive dissonance. d) discrimination. 20. The process of explaining one’s own behavior and the behavior of other people is called ___________. a) stereotyping b) attribution c) central-route processing d) cognitive dissonance 21. "Look, Officer, I didn't see the stop sign back there because the sun was in my eyes." The police officer responds, "You were not paying attention." How would a social psychologist describe this situation? a) Both individuals were making fundamental attribution errors. b) Both individuals were making situational attributions. c) The driver was making a dispositional attribution; the officer was making a situational attribution. d) The driver was making a situational attribution; the officer was making a dispositional attribution. Social Psychology -299- CHAPTER 12 22. While watching the TV game show “Jeopardy,” your roommate says, "The game show host, Alex Trebek, knows all the answers. He must be a genius." You tell your roommate she probably would not have said that if she had attended class the day the instructor discussed the topic of ______. a) social facilitation b) stereotyping illusions c) internal attribution biases d) fundamental attribution errors 23. A bank loan officer thinks people who speak with an accent are lazy; consequently, he refuses to grant them loans. The loan officer's belief is an example of _______. His refusal to grant them loans is an example of __________ . a) discrimination; prejudice b) stereotyping; attribution c) attribution; stereotyping d) prejudice; discrimination 24. The part of a person's self-concept that is based on his or her identification with a nation, culture, or ethnic group or with gender or other roles in society is called a) the fundamental attribution error. b) self-serving bias. c) ethnocentrism. d) social identity. 25. Which of the following does NOT represent an effective method for reducing prejudice? a) b) c) d) establishing a jigsaw classroom bringing diverse groups of people into contact with each other learning about people who are different from you establishing equal status contact between different groups of people 26. We tend to ___ attractive people more than we do less attractive people. a) b) c) d) like dislike ignore hate 27. When opposites attract it is said that they have __________ characteristics. a) proximal b) complementary c) rewarding d) reciprocal 28. Which of the following was NOT a component of Robert Sternberg’s theory of love? a) intimacy b) lust c) passion d) commitment Social Psychology -300- CHAPTER 12 29. Behavior that is intended to hurt or destroy another person is referred to as _________ . a) empty love b) prejudice c) aggression d) dissonance 30. The fact that a social role can lead to an increase in aggressive behavior points to __________ as a major contributor to aggression. a) biology b) the environment c) DNA d) chemical influences 31. What term refers to helping behavior that is performed voluntarily for the benefit of another person, with no anticipation of reward? a) altruism b) collectivism c) interdependence d) humanitarianism 32. In a crowded mall parking lot, dozens of people hear a female voice yell, "He's killing me!" Yet, no one calls the police. What is the reason for the lack of action, according to Darley and Latane? a) People are too busy to respond. b) Most people “do not want to become involved.” c) The fight-or-flight response is not activated when others are in danger. d) There is a diffusion of responsibility. 33. In Latané and Darley’s classic 1969 study, they found that __________ of the participants reported the smoke in the room when the two confederates in the room noticed the smoke but then ignored it. a) all b) three-fourths c) one-half d) one-tenth 34. All of the following are decision points in helping behavior EXCEPT a) noticing. b) defining an emergency. c) taking responsibility. d) diffusion of responsibility. 35. In 1995, there were approximately how many cults in the United States? a) 200 b) 500 c) 4000 d) 15,000 PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. c Conformity involves going along with the group despite one's real opinion. Compliance would be the case if someone had asked him to voice an opinion in keeping with the previous speakers. In this case, Vince did it on his own as a result of internal pressure to conform. Social Psychology -301- CHAPTER 12 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. d a d a b b a 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. b c d b c a a a d c b b d d d d D is the correct answer. Asch conducted the well-known studies on conformity. Milgram studied obedience in his famous studies with electrical shock. Groupthink describes the thought processes that can dominate a group of individuals. Groupthink results in lack of differing opinions. Believing that the group can do no wrong is actually a cause for groupthink. The norm of reciprocity involves the tendency of people to feel obligated to give something in return after they have received something. Social facilitation is an increase in performance caused by greater arousal. The door-in-the-face technique involves asking for a large request that you know will be refused followed up by a smaller request, which many people then agree to. Obedience involves changing your behavior due to an order from “above,” while conformity involves changing your behavior to better “fit in” with others around you. The Milgram experiment has been repeated at various times, in the United States and in other countries, and the percentage of participants who went all the way consistently remained between 61 and 66 percent. In addition, few differences between males and females have been found. The teacher knows that some students will slack off if they are not being evaluated for their individual performance, due to a phenomenon known as social loafing. Social facilitation is the term for the positive effect on one's performance caused by the perception that others are watching. Writing is an action, or behavior. The fact that Bill struggled to understand indicates that what he is doing is cognitive. Attitude formation is believed to occur solely through the learning process and is not considered to be something that is inherited biologically. The fact that Kerry's mother talks about China all the time with Kerry and is Chinese indicates that her attitude is the result of interaction with her mother. Attractiveness and expertise have been shown to increase persuasiveness. In central-route processing, an individual pays attention to the content of the message, whereas in peripheral-route processing, an individual focuses on details other than the main content of the message. The group that got paid less used cognitive dissonance to justify their poor pay for telling a lie. Cognitive dissonance is an emotional disturbance that occurs when a person’s actions don’t match his or her statements. While stereotyping may be a component of impression formation, it is not the term for the process of developing an opinion about another person. Implicit personality theory represents the automatic associations a person makes about personality traits that are assumed to be related. An attribute is an explanation for a person’s behavior. Stereotypes are preconceived ideas about a group of people. The driver attributed his error to something in his situation, the sun; whereas the officer attributed his error to something internal to him, his lack of attention. Your roommate attributed something that is situational (Trebek gets the answers ahead of time) to an internal characteristic (genius). Although internal attribution bias sounds correct, it is not a term used in social psychology. Prejudice is an unsupported, often negative belief about all people in a particular group, whereas discrimination is an action taken that is based on this belief. In this case, the action is the refusal to grant loans. Social identity refers to a person’s identity with his or her social group. Ethnocentrism is the process of viewing the world from your own viewpoint and failing to see alternative perspectives. Social Psychology -302- CHAPTER 12 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. b a b b c b a 32. d 33. 34. 35. d d c Simply bringing groups together normally does not reduce prejudice unless all the members of the group have equal status and power in the group. Social psychologists have found that we tend to like attractive people more than unattractive people. Things that "complement" each other tend to be opposites. The term proximity refers to nearness. Sternberg’s theory of love includes the three components of intimacy, passion, and commitment. Aggression describes a type of behavior, whereas prejudice refers to a person’s attitude. The impact of the social role points to learning and the influence of the surrounding environment on an individual’s aggressive behavior. Altruism is defined as helping others for no personal benefit. Humanitarianism means almost the same thing as altruism but is not the term social psychologists use for the helping behavior that is performed voluntarily for the benefit of another person, with no anticipation of reward. According to Latane and Darley most people say they do want to become involved, however often diffusion of responsibility occurs. Diffusion of responsibility is what occurs as each person thinks someone else will call for help, i.e., take responsibility. About 1/10th of the participants reported smoke when the confederates in the room noticied the smoke but did nothing about it. This number was much higher when the participants were in the room alone. Diffusion of responsibility stops a person from helping and is not considered a decision point. The estimate is between 3000-5000 cults in the U.S. CHAPTER GLOSSARY aggression altruism attitude attribution attribution theory bystander effect central-route processing cognitive dissonance companionate love compliance conformity consumer psychology cult behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person. prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself. a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation. the process of explaining one’s own behavior and the behavior of others. the theory of how people explain behavior. referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases. type of information processing that involves attending to the content of the message itself. sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to that person’s attitudes. type of love proposed by Robert Sternberg consisting of intimacy and commitment. changing one’s behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change. changing one’s own behavior to match that of other people. branch of psychology that studies people’s buying habits in the marketplace. any group of people with a particular religious or philosophical set of beliefs and identity. Social Psychology -303- CHAPTER 12 diffusion of responsibility discrimination dispositional cause door-in-the-face technique elaboration likelihood model equal status contact foot-in-the-door technique Fritz Heider fundamental attribution error groupthink implicit personality theories impression formation in-groups interpersonal attraction jigsaw classroom lowball technique norm of reciprocity obedience out-groups peripheral-route processing persuasion prejudice prosocial behavior proximity realistic conflict theory occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility. treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong. cause of behavior attributed to internal factors such as personality or character. asking for a large commitment and being refused, and then asking for a smaller commitment. model of persuasion stating that people will either elaborate on the persuasive message or fail to elaborate on it, and that the future actions of those who do elaborate are more predictable than those who do not. contact between groups in which the groups have equal status, with neither group having power over the other. asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment. 1896-1988. German social psychologist known for the development of attribution theory. the tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors. kind of thinking that occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are related to each other. the forming of the first knowledge that a person has concerning another person. social groups with whom a person identifies; “us.” liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person. educational technique in which each individual is given only part of the information needed to solve a problem, causing the separate individuals to be forced to work together to find the solution. getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment. assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return. changing one’s behavior at the command of an authority figure. social groups with whom a person does not identify; “them.” type of information processing that involves attending to factors not involved in the message, such as the appearance of the source of the message, the length of the message, and other noncontent factors. the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation. negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group. socially desirable behavior that benefits others. physical or geographical nearness. Greater proximity increases the likelihood of forming a relationship. theory stating that prejudice and discrimination will be increased between groups that are in conflict. Social Psychology -304- CHAPTER 12 reciprocity of liking romantic love scapegoat self-fulfilling prophecy situational cause social categorization social cognition social comparison social facilitation social identification social identity theory social influence social interaction social loafing social psychology social role Solomon Asch Stanley Milgram stereotype threat stereotype vulnerability stereotypes that’s-not-all technique tendency of people to like other people who like them in return. type of love proposed by Robert Sternberg consisting of intimacy and passion. an individual who is punished for the mistakes of someone else. the tendency of one’s expectations to affect one’s behavior in such a way as to make the expectation more likely to be occur. cause of behavior attributed to external factors, such as delays, the action of others, or some other aspect of the situation. the assignment of a newly met person to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom the person doing the assigning has had experience in the past. deals with the ways people think about other people and includes attitudes, impressions, and attributions. the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one’s self-esteem. the tendency for the presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task. the part of the self-concept including one’s view of self as a member of a particular social category. theory in which the formation of a person’s identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison. the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual the relationship between people. the tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task. the scientific study of how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others the pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position. 1907-1996. Pioneer in the field of social psychologist well known for his experiments on conformity. 1933-1984. Social psychologist at Yale University famous for his experiments on obedience to authority. the feeling of anxiety that a person’s knowledge of someone else’s stereotyped opinion can have on that person’s behavior. the effect that people’s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group affect their behavior. a set of characteristics that people believe are shared by all members of a particular social category. the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can make a decision. Social Psychology -305- CHAPTER 12 ciccarellich12b.qxd 11/10/08 11:13 AM Page 306 Table 12.1 Characteristics of Groupthink CHARACTERISTIC Invulnerability Rationalization DESCRIPTION Members feel they cannot fail. Members explain away warning signs and help each other rationalize their decision. Members do not examine the ethical implications of their decision because they believe that they cannot make immoral choices. Members stereotype their enemies as weak, stupid, or unreasonable. Members pressure each other not to question the prevailing opinion. Members do not express opinions that differ from the group consensus. Members share in the illusion that they all agree with the decision. Members prevent the group from hearing disruptive but potentially useful information from people who are outside the group. 12. 12.1–3 p. 481 several classic studies (i.e., Sherif, Asch) suggest that individuals will change their behaviors to conform to those of a group may be influenced by private vs. face-to-face contact, gender, or culture groupthink foot-in-the-door technique Lack of introspection Stereotyping Pressure Lack of disagreement Self-deception Insularity conformity changing one’s own behavior to more closely match the actions of others compliance person changing their behavior due to another person or group asking or directing them to change, often in the absence of any real authority or power So door-in-the-face technique lowball technique that’s-not-all technique Pr Source: Janis (1972, 1982). Social Influence (the ways in which a person’s behavior can be affected by other people) task performance can be affected by social influence social facilitation = positive influence social impairment = negative influence social loafing occurs when people do not work hard when others are also working; easy to “hide” in a group obedience Shock generator Type ZLB Dyson Instrument Company Waltham, Mass Output 15 Volts – 450 Volts Voltage meter 15 VOLTS 30 45 60 75 VOLTS 135 195 255 315 375 435 450 VOLTS 90 105 120 VOLTS 150 165 180 VOLTS 210 225 240 VOLTS 270 285 300 VOLTS 330 345 360 VOLTS 390 405 420 VOLTS Slight shock Moderate shock Strong shock Very strong Intense Extreme Danger shock shock intensity severe X X X shock shock changing one’s behavior at the direct order of an authority figure a classic study by Milgram (i.e., teacher/learner electrical shock study) indicated that 65% of “teachers” went all the way through shock levels, despite protest from “learners” Attitude toward country music 12.4–5 p. 487 focuses on the ways in which people think about other people and how those cognitions affect behavior Affect (feelings) Behavior (actions) Cognition (thoughts) comprise affective, behavioral, and cognitive components are not great predictors of behavior although tend to have more influence as they become more specific and salient attitude formation can be the result of several processes I like country music; it’s fun and uplifting. attitudes tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain idea, person, object, or situation; learned through experience I buy country music CDs every chance I get. I only listen to a country music station on the radio; I’m going to a country music concert soon. I think country music is better than any other kind of music I hear on the radio. Rom In Social Cognition (part 1) cognitive dissonance can change through persuasion and are contingent upon both the message and the target audience; elaboration likelihood model suggests that the route/level of information processing (central vs. peripheral) influences ease of persuasion can be reduced by 1) changing behavior, 2) changing cognition, or 3) forming new cognitions to justify behavior Inducement $1 $20 Control Attitude +1.35 – 0.5 – .45 Infa Pas emotional discomfort as the result of engaging in behavior that is inconsistent with personal cognitions *Based on a –5 to +5 scale, where –5 means ”extremely boring” and +5 means “extremely interesting” 12. 12.6–7 p. 492 impression formation forming of first knowledge about another person; influenced by primacy effect Social Cognition social categorization automatic and unconscious assignment of a new acquaintance to some category or group (part 2) So A attribution is process by which we explain both our own behavior and the behavior of others; based on attribution theory (Heider) situational dispositional fundamental attribution error Impression Formation and Attribution stereotypes categories assigned are based on implicit personality theory, the set of assumptions formed in childhood about different types of people Social Psychology 306 CHAPTER 12 ciccarellich12b.qxd 11/10/08 11:13 AM Page 307 12.8–9 g signs e their thical ecause ake ies as . ot to n. ns that s. hat they om ally useful are p. 497 social cognitive theory prejudice unsupported and negative stereotypes (e.g., ageism, sexism, racism, etc.) about members of a particular social group social identity theory stereotype vulnerability prejudice discrimination occurs when prejudicial attitudes cause members of a social group to be treated differently than others in situations calling for equal treament Social Interaction (part 1) Prejudice and Discrimination realistic conflict theory suggests that when resources are limited, prejudice and discrimination are closely tied to an increasing degree of conflict between groups that seek common resources can vary based on existence of in-groups and out-groups scapegoating ard group 12.10 p. 500 liking or having the desire for a relationship with someone else; can be influenced by a variety of factors physical attractiveness proximity similarity complementary qualities Social Interaction (part 2) Interpersonal Attraction on ts) reciprocity of liking Liking Intimacy only usic han kind hear dio. love strong affection for another person due to kinship, personal ties, sexual attraction, admiration, or common interests Romantic Love Intimacy + Passion Consummate Love Intimacy + Passion + Commitment Companionate Love Intimacy + Commitment ttitude +1.35 – 0.5 – .45 where g” and esting” Infatuation Passion only Fatuous Love Passion + Commitment Empty Love Commitment only Sternberg’s triangular theory suggests different components and types of love 12.11–12 p. 507 aggression occurs when one person verbally or physically hurts or tries to destroy another person; often the result of frustration aggression may be partly attributed to genetics and can be triggered by variations in brain function (i.e., amygdala activation) and internal or external chemical influences (e.g., testosterone, alcohol) much of aggression is influenced by learning but not totally deterministic Social Interaction (part 3) Aggression and Prosocial Behavior prosocial, or socially desirable, behavior benefits others altruism: helping someone with no expectation of reward and often at personal risk can be influenced by helper’s mood and victim’s gender, attractiveness, or “just rewards”; racial and ethnic differences can decrease probability of helping refusal to help another can be negatively affected by the presence of others (bystander effect/diffusion of responsibility) rather than indifference or a lack of sympathy; also influenced by individual’s appraisal of situation (see Table 12.3) Social Psychology 307 CHAPTER 12 ciccarellich12b.qxd 11/10/08 11:13 AM Page 308 12.1–12.3 Social Influence: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Figure 12.1 Stimuli Used in Asch’s Study 1 2 3 Standard line Comparison lines _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Social Psychology 308 CHAPTER 12 ciccarellich12b.qxd 11/10/08 11:13 AM Page 309 Table 12.1 Characteristics of Groupthink Table 12.1 Characteristics of Groupthink DESCRIPTION CHARACTERISTIC Invulnerability Rationalization Lack of introspection Stereotyping Pressure Lack of disagreement Self-deception Insularity Members feel they cannot fail. Members explain away warning signs and help each other rationalize their decision. Members do not examine the ethical implications of their decision because they believe that they cannot make immoral choices. Members stereotype their enemies as weak, stupid, or unreasonable. Members pressure each other not to question the prevailing opinion. Members do not express opinions that differ from the group consensus. Members share in the illusion that they all agree with the decision. Members prevent the group from hearing disruptive but potentially useful information from people who are outside the group. Source: Janis (1972, 1982). _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 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_________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Social Psychology 309 CHAPTER 12 ciccarellich12b.qxd 11/10/08 11:13 AM Page 310 Figure 12.2 Control Panel in Milgram’s Experiment Shock generator Type ZLB Dyson Instrument Company Waltham, Mass Output 15 Volts – 450 Volts Voltage meter 15 VOLTS 30 45 60 75 VOLTS 135 195 255 315 375 435 450 VOLTS 90 105 120 VOLTS 150 165 180 VOLTS 210 225 240 VOLTS 270 285 300 VOLTS 330 345 360 VOLTS 390 405 420 VOLTS Slight shock Moderate shock Strong shock Very strong Intense Extreme Danger shock shock intensity severe X X X shock shock _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 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_________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Social Psychology 310 CHAPTER 12 ciccarellich12b.qxd 11/10/08 11:13 AM Page 311 Table 12.2 Sample Script Items from Milgram’s Classic Experiment Table 12.2 Sample Script Items from Milgram’s Classic Experiment LEARNER’S SCRIPT VOLTAGE OF “SHOCK” 150 “Ugh!! Experimenter! That’s all. Get me out of here. I told you I had heart trouble. My heart’s starting to bother me now. Get me out of here, please. My heart’s starting to bother me. I refuse to go on. Let me out.” “Ugh!! Experimenter! Get me out of here. I’ve had enough. I won’t be in this experiment any more.” (Agonized scream) “I absolutely refuse to answer any more. Get me out of here. You can’t hold me here. Get me out. Get me out of here.” (Intense and prolonged agonized scream) “Let me out of here. Let me out of here. My heart’s bothering me. Let me out, I tell you. (Hysterically) Let me out of here. Let me out of here. You have no right to hold me here. Let me out! Let me out! Let me out of here! Let me out! Let me out!” 210 300 330 Source: Milgram (1964a, 1974). _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Social Psychology 311 CHAPTER 12 ciccarellich12b.qxd 11/10/08 11:13 AM Page 312 12.4–12.7 Social Cognition: Attitudes, Impression Formation, and Attribution _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Figure 12.3 Three Components of an Attitude Attitude toward country music Affect (feelings) Behavior (actions) Cognition (thoughts) I like country music; it’s fun and uplifting. I buy country music CDs every chance I get. I only listen to a country music station on the radio; I’m going to a country music concert soon. I think country music is better than any other kind of music I hear on the radio. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Social Psychology 312 CHAPTER 12 ciccarellich12b.qxd 11/10/08 11:13 AM Page 313 Figure 12.4 Cognitive Dissonance: Attitude Toward a Task ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Inducement $1 $20 Control Attitude +1.35 – 0.5 – .45 ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ *Based on a –5 to +5 scale, where –5 means ”extremely boring” and +5 means “extremely interesting” 12.8–12.10 Social Interaction: Prejudice, Love, and Aggression _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 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_________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Social Psychology 313 CHAPTER 12 ciccarellich12b.qxd 11/10/08 11:13 AM Page 314 Figure 12.5 Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love Liking Intimacy only Romantic Love Intimacy + Passion Consummate Love Intimacy + Passion + Commitment Companionate Love Intimacy + Commitment Infatuation Passion only Fatuous Love Passion + Commitment Empty Love Commitment only _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12.11 Aggression _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Social Psychology 314 CHAPTER 12 ciccarellich12b.qxd 11/10/08 11:13 AM Page 315 12.12 Prosocial Behavior _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Figure 12.6 Elements Involved in Bystander Response 100 Percentage reporting smoke 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Groups of 3 Alone Time taken to report smoke (min) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Social Psychology 315 CHAPTER 12 ciccarellich12b.qxd 11/10/08 11:13 AM Page 316 Table 12.3 Help or Don’t Help: Five Decision Points Table 12.3 DECISION POINT Help or Don’t Help: Five Decision Points DESCRIPTION FACTORS INFLUENCING DECISION Noticing Defining an Emergency Taking Responsibility Realizing that there is a situation that might be an emergency. Interpreting the cues as signaling an emergency. Personally assuming the responsibility to act. Hearing a loud crash or a cry for help. Loud crash is associated with a car accident, people are obviously hurt. A single bystander is much more likely to act than when others are present (Latané & Darley, 1969). People who feel they have the necessary skills to help are more likely to help. Costs of helping (e.g., danger to self) must not outweigh the rewards of helping. Planning a Course of Action Deciding how to help and what skills might be needed. Taking Action Actually helping. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12.13 Cults _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Social Psychology 316 CHAPTER 12 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/26/2010 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Dan during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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