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CHM-ch.3 quiz#2 - Exam Name MULTIPLECHOICE. 1 Whatis...

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Exam Name___________________________________   MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.  1) 
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What is  the main  difference  between  the  deductive  or  Aristoteli an logic  used by  the  Greeks  and the  type of  inductive  logic that  was  introduce d by  Boyle to  investigat e the  nature of  matter.  
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1) 
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_______  A) 
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Deductive  reasoning starts  with a premise, or idea, that is assumed to be true, and then all the conclusions deduced are, of necessity, also true.  Inductive reasoning rests on observations with the conclusions reached being consistent with those observations.  B) 
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Deductive  reasoning relies  on observation; inductive reasoning starts with a premise, or idea, that is assumed to be true; therefore, all the  conclusions reached from this premise must, of necessity, all be true.   C) 
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Deductive and  inductive logic are two similar approaches to finding truth.  D) 
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Inductive  conclusion must  always be held to be true and can not change; deductive conclusions can change based on new observations.  E) 
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Inductive  reasoning relies  on observations that once made can not be challenged.  Deductive reasoning relies on the creation of a premise that is  constantly changing as new information is gathered.    2) 
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Naturally - occurring  elemental  chlorine  consists  of 75.77%  chlorine - 35 (mass  34.97  amu) and  24.23%  chlorine - 37 (mass  36.97  amu).  Chlorine - 37 has 17  protons  and 20  neutrons.  Why is  the  observed  mass of  chlorine - 37 not  equal to  the sum  of the  mass of  its  protons  and  neutrons  (i.e.,  37.30  amu)? 
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2)  ____ ___  T h i s   i s   t h e   r e s u l t   o f   e x p e r i m e n t al  er ro ca us ed  by  re fe re nc in all  at o mi m as se to  th ca rb on  at o m.  Ch lor in e - 35  and chlorine - 37  undergo valence  hybridization which  reduces the mass by a  small percentage. 
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This difference  is caused by the force of gravity on the nucleus.  D) 
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It is the impact  of ignoring the mass of the electrons in the calculation.    E) 
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Some mass has  been converted to energy to bind the nucleus together.    3) 
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If a  neutral  element  has the  following  chemical  notation,  how many  electrons  does it  have? iodine - 127 
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3)  ____ ___  53  12 7 
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74  D) 
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73  E) 
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none of the  above    4) 
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An  element  has two  principal  isotopes.  Isotope 1  has a  mass of  34.9689  amu and a  relative  abundanc e of  76.56%,  and  isotope 2  has a  mass of  36.9659  amu and a  relative  abundanc e of  24.24%.  Identify  the  element  and its  average  atomic  mass? 
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