PA 6610 RM - The Treatment of Complex Academic Literatures...

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Unformatted text preview: The Treatment of Complex Academic Literatures within the structure of a paper Literature on thesis writing Chad Parry (1998), – A structured approach to presenting a thesis. AMJ structured 6(1) 63-85 and Commentary by Uncles (1998) 6(1) Adams and White (1994) – Dissertation Research in Public Administration: an Dissertation Assessment of Methods and Quality PAR 54(6) 6565-576 6565-576 Clark (1965) – Writing up the Doctorial Thesis GMR 25-31 Cooper (1989) – Integrated Research a guide for Literature Reviews. Integrated Sage Sage Krathwohl (1977) – How to prepare a research proposal University of How Syracuse Syracuse Phillips and Pugh (1994) – How to Get a PhD Open University Press How Sources of material for this seminar Sources In order to demonstrate my discussion of In literature I will use a thesis literature A internal conceptual model of the small firm The Structure of the thesis as an argument argument 1 Introduction and overview of this 2 Issues in definin Issues 3 Literature review Literature 4 Research method 5 Active research Your Work 6 Active research Your Work Active 7 Active research Your Work Active 9 Conclusions, implications and Conclusions, identification of further research. identification Fitting it back into the literature Fitting thesis thesis 1 Introduction and overview of this dissertation dissertation Introduces the thesis. Provides a general context from a discipline Provides perspective and a general perspective. perspective – – Why is it important to study this area. Why What is being explored. What are the fundamental question/s explored What in the thesis. in What is the scope of the thesis. Chapter 2 Chapter Issues in defining….. Issues This is your opportunity to define your This terms and to justify your definitions. terms This chapter can also be used to establish This any unusual words/language in the thesis. any If well written the chapter will act as a If reference for the reader to progress from. Chapter 3 Literature review Chapter Literature The heart of the thesis and subject of The this seminar this Chapter 4 Research method Chapter Will flow out of literature chapter but also have its Will own literature own Composition Composition – – – – – – – The research questions Issues in the research approach The research philosophy of this dissertation Implications of the research philosophy Stages in research for this dissertation Stage 3 Case studies Stage 4 Empirical substantiation Chapter 9 Conclusions, implications and Chapter Conclusions, identification of further research identification Introduction Contribution of the conceptual model to Contribution business literature business Contribution of the model components to Contribution business literature business Further research Conclusion Structure of the thesis Structure Chapter 1 Introduction and overview of this Chapter dissertation dissertation Chapter 2 Issues in defining small business Issues Chapter 3 Literature review Literature Chapter 4 Research method Chapter 5 The firm as a generative and an The extractive phenomenon extractive Chapter 6 The cashflow component model Chapter 7 The generative component of the firm Chapter 9 Conclusions, implications and Conclusions, identification of further research identification What you need to comment on What has been said. – – – – – – – Overall Specifically Q. What and how is it related to my problem Specifically Generally What is its substance Q. What and how is it related to my problem What has been concluded Engaging a literature regardless whether it is complex or simple What needs to be covered. – Range of aspects – Range of literatures What and how is it related to my problem Problems Problems What should be in ? What should be out? How do you produce a transparent argument Steps in managing a complex literature literature Step 1 Scoping the literature Step 2 Step Grasping the Literature Analytically Analytically Step 3 bring the story together Step 1 Scoping the literature Step Survey the general area and do it carefully as Survey misses will come back and bite you misses – Search carefully and extensively. If you find a Search paper that arrears relevant look at its references and pick up the authors who are frequently quoted. pick – Search widely and preferably cross discipline. – Search chronologically. Table of Literature Year Author/s Journal/Book Study type Discilpine Main points contribution Relevance to my thesis S tudy by Methodology/ discussion basis Text Discipline Orientation addressed Core issue discussed and theory contribution Taylor,Weber,Fayol 1846. (see discussion Kast and Rosenweig 1970) Levitt (1960) Jensen and Meckling (1976) Management PO Focus on production and internal efficiency as a key driver of business performance. Identifies limitations of business focus. Argues need to change focus f rom production and selling to overall customer needs. Firms are investments with sole purpose of maximizing cash flows f or the owners. This orientation is basis of agency theory and economic assumptions. Brings economic focused models of competitive advantage into m anagement discussion with normative models of strategic organizational behavior. Marketing orientation not applicable to highly competitive markets. Proposes upper boundary for construct. Product or service extends to every aspect of the relationship between buyer and seller concept of Augmented product. Identifies the components of marketing required for customer value delivery as target market, customer needs, co-ordination between the different components of the firm and profit. Defines marketing orientation as an interactive firm/customer culture and set research agenda into interaction understanding. Redefines MO as a driver of the firm activity and customer interactive nature of the MO. Establishes MO relates to customer value issues only. Establishes relationship between market orientation and performance. Defines the structure of marketing orientation as consisting of customer orientation, competitor orientation, interfunctional. Central is the focus long term and profit. Establishes MO is not moderated by competition. In the longer term MO is an independent variable to competitive orientation (CO). Establishes synergy between MO and Learning organization. Explains the interactive interface as central to MO and how this provides direction to the learning orientation (LO). Establishes how to use dimensions of innovation, risk taking and proactiveness as measures of EO. Establishes innovation as central to EO and links it with culture i n a model. Discussion/ conceptual Discussion/ Conceptual Text Marketing A ccounting MO,SO FO Porter (1975,1980,1985) E conomics CO,FO Miles & Snow (1978) Levitt (1980) Kotler (1984) Text Conceptual Discussion/ Conceptual Discussion/ Conceptual Discussion/ Observational Conceptual Qualitative/ Discussion/ Conceptual Qualitative/ Discussion/ Empirical Management E conomics Marketing Marketing MO MO MO Despande & Webster (1989) W ebster (1992) Kohli & Jaworski (1990) Marketing MO Marketing MO Day and Wensley (1988) Slater & Narver (1990) Marketing Marketing MO MO Narver & Slater (1994) Narver & Slater (1995) Empirical Discussion/ Conceptual Empirical Conceptual Empirical Empirical Empirical Discussion Conceptual Conceptual Empirical Conceptual Marketing Marketing MO,CO MO,LO Miller (1983) Miller &Friesen (1982) Ginsberg (1985) Covin &Slevin (1989) Covin &Slevin (1991) Zahra (1993) Miles & Arnold (1991) Carland et. al.(1984) Management E nt/ship Management E nt/ship Management E nt/ship E nt/ship E nt/ship A ccounting Marketing E nt/ship Management E nt/ship EO EO EO Refines measures used to define EO developed by Miller. Identifies EO as a culture. Develops conceptual model of EO as a firm’s behaviour. EO, FO, MO,EO EO extends Covin and Slevin (1991) to internal financial links and performance. Establishes commonality between MO and EO. Differentiate between small business and entrepreneurship. Identifies difference as SB venture not engaging in any new marketing or innovative practices. EV is linked to growth from innovative strategic practices for the purposes of profit. Mil es & Gregory and Arnold (1994) Lumpkin & Dess (1996) Empirical Discussion Marketing E nt/ship Management E nt/ship MO,EO,QO Establishes common elements between MO, EO and QO. EO,LO,CO Extends EO to include autonomy and competitive aggression. Establishes literature basis for independence of EO and CO and the basis for a link between EO and Org Ent performance. This logic is parallel to Narver and Slater (1995) in also proposing l ink between MO and LO. < P e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y > Bwd oe; s ln1 e t&bt o,1 DD r9 o asIb l1r& ,1 a 9m ;t c Ou oc o i , 1iG; 9h,5 5o9 ;t d Si1 m n g A&,8 nns; dLd ree eid9 an1 st r a EaG r&8e dt9a e,;e m rlt Sw w 1 a;ea l1 n1 ,8e9 9 y9 be Sl w t, D9m ol1& d1e s ;d eE tr a , SG wrlt ae, i1w t9a ,8e ;a l 1nS 9ha 8& aD ;ar Sb ie o , 1 9 8 Pe el rv c e ia v e d u St w iic to c h n g s Cp8 ryh7 oe9 s e; bn &1 S ts , PS7 ap; tsr, ee r&9 on ng 1 F a l1 , 9 eg Liz Hemphill An examination of agent-principal relationship establishment: The case of Real Estate Legal Literature Specific parameters and definitions of the agency relationship; remedies for agent, principal and clie nt (Cheshire and Fifoot 1988; Latimer 1999) Marketing Literature Agency Theory Boundaries, drivers and benefits of the agency relationship (Akerlof 1970; Jensen 1994b; Jensen and Meckling 1976) GAP Gap filled fGap illed filled by by thesis this his thesis hesis t Consumer Behaviour- Principal’s decision to commit (Bagozzi 2000; Bagozzi & Dholakia 1999) Relationship maintenance(Singh 200 0; Sitkin & Roth 1993) Relationship outcomes- Agency relationship definitions and outcomes (Bergen, Dutta, and Walker 1992) Agent behaviour - Drivers of agent behaviour (Marsh and Zumpano 1998; Moore, Smolen, and Conway 1992; Black, and Simmons 1987) Society Laws Boundaries and limitations of legalistic control; codes of conduct (Kucera 2002; Molho 1997; Sitkin and Roth 1993) Eg Saran’s thesis Eg Trade Theory and Development Economics: Role of skill-intensity, macro-level environmental factors and organizational factors (Czinkota et al. 1998; Deardorf 1984) i.e. absolute advantage (Smith 1776), comparative advantage (Ricardo 1819), factor proportion (Leontief 1950; Ohlin 1967), demand similarity (Linder 1961), technology gap (Posner 1961), skill gap (Hirsch 1967), product cycle (Vernon 1966), market imperfect (Krugman 1990), competitive advantage of nations (Porter 1990), modified factor proportion (Wood 1994), resource-advantage (Hunt and Morgan 1995) development economics (Hymer 1972; Schumpeter 1952; Stiglitz 1996; 2002; UNCTAD 2002) Industrial Organization Theory: Relationship between external environments and performance (e.g. Aldrich 1979; Hofer 1975; Porter 1980; Scherer 1990); i.e. export barrier external to the firms and export performance (e.g. Bilkey and Tesar 1977; Bodur 1986; ; Das 1994; ; Katsikeas et al. 1996; Leonidou 1995c, 2004; Ratanasithi 2002; Styles and Ambler 1994) GAP Export Performance Resource-Based Resource-Based T Mix Theory: Export Marketingheory: Relationship between Relationship between Theory: Relationship firm resources and firm resources and between export marketing performance (Barney performance (Barney 2001; Collis 1991) i.e. mix strategy and export 2001; performance (Bilkey Collis 1991) i.e. export barrier internal to the firms and export export 1987) Strategy Theory:barrier internal performance (e.g. to the firms and export Relationship between Bauerschmidt et al. performance (e.g. 1985; Da Silva and Da strategy and performance Bauerschmidt et al. Rocha 2001; Katsikeas (e.g. Eisenhardt 1999; et al.1996) Minzberg 1985) 1985; Ecological Organization Theory: Relationship between business environment, firm resources, business strategy and business performance (Thorelli 1967) Trade Theory and Development Economics: Role of skill-intensity, macro-level environmental factors and organizational factors (Czinkota et al. 1998; Deardorf 1984) i.e. absolute advantage (Smith 1776), comparative advantage (Ricardo 1819), factor proportion (Leontief 1950; Ohlin 1967), demand similarity (Linder 1961), technology gap (Posner 1961), skill gap (Hirsch 1967), product cycle (Vernon 1966), market imperfect (Krugman 1990), competitive advantage of nations (Porter 1990), modified factor proportion (Wood 1994), resource-advantage (Hunt and Morgan 1995) development economics (Hymer 1972; Schumpeter 1952; Stiglitz 1996; 2002; UNCTAD 2002) Invaluable discoveries Invaluable Look for scope though Look – – – Themes. Patterns Patterns Areas covered and missed. Especially look for the invaluable contributions such Especially as citation analysis, broad studies which provide overviews of an area. If you cannot find these you will have to develop them yourself so look very carefully. have Some useful hints Some Look for any summary analysis, literature Look reviews such as a citation analysis or extensive lit review paper lit – – – – Academy of Management Review. Journal of Accounting Literature. Journal of Economic Literature Look for mega analysis. Read the lit review sections of the good papers Read and see if anyone has taken a holistic view. holistic An example of a literature scope Taken from Taken A conceptual model of the small firm firm An existing paper An An Empirical analysis of small business literature Figure 3.1 Classification of small enterprise research Subject Entrepreneurship Firm and industry specifics Startup/managing ongoing small business Innovation and technology Finance Education /training /advice and consulting Business policy/organization development Strategy Growth/failure Paper number 195 115 84 73 71 65 59 43 20 725 Source: Romano and Ratnatunga (1994, Table 3, p. 9) Percentage 26.9% 15.9% 11.6% 10.1% 9.8% 9.0% 8.1% 5.9% 2.8% 100.0% Figure 3.2 Subjects in journal/academic articles exerting the greatest impact on contemporary small enterprise research enterprise Subject 1975–80 1981–85 1986–92 Total Entrepreneurship Growth Strategy Firm specifics Organizational development Business policy Innovation Finance 5 2 3 2 2 5 1 1 13 5 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 Source: Compiled from Romano C.A., Ratnatunga J., (1994 table 6) Make comments of what you observe provided they are justified for example After figure 3.1 classification – On the basis of these comments it is not surprising On that the literature appears fragmented and nonthat cohesive. cohesive. After figure 3.1 classification citation analysis – Clearly, the research to this point had not generated Clearly, material that helped to provide an integrated understanding of small businesses as a whole. understanding Engage the literature further and comment on what has been found. for example there were two holistic studies for Williams (1989) and Storey, Keasey, Watson and Pooran (1990) The Williams (1989) study The The characteristics Williams chose to collect data on were in four groups: data » Enterprise characteristics, » Owner/manager characteristics, » Management practices and business dynamics, and » Owner/manager reaction and development. What Williams did What Studied approx 4000 continuing businesses for Studied 15 years and approx 4000 failed businesses 15 Collected detailed data on all the characteristics Collected identified every 6 months identified Did extensive survey work with each failed Did business business The contribution of the Williams study The Observation 1 – It is critical to determine and understand what controls are It used in a small firm and how these are used. used Observation 2 – It is important to understand how these controls actually It function as components of the management process of small business. business. Observation 3 – A framework model if available would provide a most useful framework reference point for the study of small business. reference An opportunity for you to comment use it to make a visible contribution use For example For – The design elements encapsulated in each The observation are missing from Williams’ study and may well be the reason for his work not achieving its model building objective. A framework model of small business, if it could be assembled, might eventually provide a means to usefully re-explore Williams’ data. Storey, Keasey, Watson and Pooran 1990 Pooran What Story et al Did – Obtained financial data (annual reports) of a sample a selection of small manufacturing businesses; selection - Compared the financial performance of small manufacturing firms with the creation of employment in those enterprises as firms a +&- measure of success. +&- The objective of Storey et al. was to model the small firm through prediction of failure, an objective not achieved by the study. The Storey et al. study contribution The Observation 4 Observation Profitability, and thus viability, is persistently present in a Profitability, continuing small business and not just in periods centred around growth stages. Furthermore, it cannot be assumed that profitability directly relates to growth. be Observation 5 Observation Cashflow or liquidity should be an aspect of small Cashflow business to examine and have an important role in small business management. small Observation 6 A single summary source such as annual accounts or statistical models is not a sufficient database for model development. A range of sources must be explored if the drivers and relationships necessary for small Compare the studies Compar E.g Williams and Storey et al. E.g Williams observations Observation 7 Observation Research based on a comparison of survivor Research and non-survivor firms has not produced information from which a small business model can be developed. Figure 3.3 Research model used Figure research method selection research hypothesis definition identification of accounting management and marketing characteristics Instrument design owner/manager research issue conceptualization successful small businesses stakeholder group business operation hard data records Williams data collection Storey owner/manager stakeholder group et al idea literature unsuccessful small businesses business operation hard data records data analysis finding no strongly significant difference between successful and unsuccessful researcher progress literature tests for differences between successful and unsuccessful A key problem in literature driven key roblem research studies research is the absence of connective links. In complex literatures you need to stay unattached until the relationships fall out fall – Let the literature talk to you – Don’t get committed to a particular view. Stay Don’t loose. loose. – Let the relationship and method requirements fall Let out. out. Use Observations until you are ready to commit. Step 2 Grasping the Literature Analytically Step After you have scoped the literature identify the After areas you want to look at more closely. areas It is here that you should draw together the It relevant literatures you wish to explore in detail. detail. Example of headings chosen Constraints in small business Workload in small business. Small business growth Small business and its business environment Research into the links between small business Research components components Business orientations and their influence Common elements between orientations Some general observations about orientation Some literature literature Opportunity recognition Treatment of each heading Treatment e.g.Constraints in small business Material – Discussion of workload and need to focus (Williams Discussion 1989 Beddall 1990) 1989 – Support in literature – Cohn and Limberg (1972), Rohrer, Hibler and Replogle (1969). Classical organisational literature lassical and research (for example the discussion of Fayol, Guli...
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