Psychology Midterm Review

Psychology Midterm Review - Dean Spann Psychology Review...

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Dean Spann September 1, 2010 Psychology Review Chapter 5- The Neural Control of Behavior I. Neurons: Cells That Create The Mind A. Neurons a. Nerve Cells B. Central Nervous System a. Composed of the brain and the spinal cord C. Peripheral Nervous System a. Composed of nerves a. Bundles of many neurons—or a bundle consisting of the axons of many neurons. b. Nerves connect the central nervous system to the body’s sensory organs, muscles, and glands. D. 3 types of Neurons a. Sensory neurons a. Carry information from sensory organs into the central nervous system. b. Motor neurons a. Carry messages out from the central nervous system to operate muscles and glands c. Interneurons a. Exist within the CNS b. Carry messages from one set of neurons to another c. Vastly outnumber the other types of neurons d. Make sense of the input that comes from sensory neurons, generate all our mental experiences, and signal motor neurons to cause action
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E. Parts of the neuron a. Cell body – contains the cell nucleus b. Dendrites – thin, tubelike extensions that branch extensively and function to receive input to the neuron. c. Axon – Thin, tubelike extension from the cell body. Carries messages to other neurons. Can extend from as far as your spinal cord to your feet. d. Axon terminal – Release chemical transmitter molecules onto other neurons. e. Myelin sheath – Surrounds the axons of some neurons. Helps catalyze the movement of neural impulses along the axon. F. How Neurons Send Messages Down Their Axons a. Action potentials – Neural impulses, the all-or noting electrical bursts that begins at one end of the axon of a neuron and move along the axon to the other end. b. Motor Neurons/ Interneurons – AP triggered at the junction between the cell body and the axon. Travel to axon terminal. c. Sensory neurons – triggered at the dendritic end of the axon and travel through or past the cell body to the axon terminals. d. Neurons vary intensity by manipulating the rate of producing action potentials. G. The Resting Neuron has a Constant Electrical Charge Across Its Membrane a. Cell membrane – encloses each neuron and permits only certain chemicals to flow into and out of the cell. b. More negatively charged particles lie on the inside of the cell than on the outside.
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a. Results in an electrical imbalance across the membrane. This is called a resting potential. b. Resting potential – the source of electrical energy that makes an action potential possible. H. The Action Potential Derives from a Brief Change in Membrane Permeability a. Depolarization and repolarization of action potential a. Sodium moves into the axon making it more positive inside. b. Potassium moves out of the axon, reestablishing the resting potential. c.
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Psychology Midterm Review - Dean Spann Psychology Review...

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