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SWES 200 quiz 1 - physical changes of materials within the...

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Name _____ Seat row ___________________________ INTRODUCTORY SOILS QUIZ 1 - January 22, 2008 Due by end of class on January 24, 2007 Presented on the right side of this page is a soil "profile." A soil profile is made up of horizons that approximately parallel the surface of the earth. There are thousands of different kinds of soil in the world. Please write a typewritten essay about how soils develop, specifically discussing the horizons noted on the figure and the processes involved in the development of this soil. (10 points) Four processes are responsible for development of soils from parent materials: additions, losses, transformations, and translocations. Soil formation is a combination of these four processes. Additions refer to materials such as organic matter, mineral particles, and dissolved salts being added to the soil through plant growth and precipitation, deposition of dust, etc. Losses refer to material being lost, largely through leaching or erosion. Transformations describes chemical and
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Unformatted text preview: physical changes of materials within the soils profile from weathering processes. Translocation is the movement of materials, including salts, clays, and organic matter within the soil profile, usually from upper horizons to lower ones. The five soil forming factors ( parent material, climate, biota, topography, and time) affect the type, rate, and extent of the four processes, and ultimately control the kind of soil found in any one location. In the diagram to the right, the ‘O’ horizon represents an organic accumulation at the soil surface. The ‘A’ horizon is one exhibiting an accumulation of organic material and a darker color than the parent material. In the ‘B’ horizon, illuviated material has been deposited, From the photograph we can not tell what the illuviated material is, but it is likely clay from the upper horizons. The ‘C’ horizon represents unconsolidated material, which may or may not be parent material of the horizons above....
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