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03-10_AB_equilibria_web_2 - ACIDBASEEQUILIBRIA Brnsteds...

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ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA Brønsted’s theory (aqueous environment) Water Categories of acids and bases Salts Weak acids and bases…..
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Volumetric methods Volumetric methods Volumetry: precise measurements of a volume in Analytical Chemistry Titration : adding controlled amounts of titrant to a studied solution Titrant: a chemical substance reacting with analyte usually used in a form of a standard solution.
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Brønsted’s Theory (1) In aqueous environments, acids produce hydrogen ions, H + (protons) or, more correctly, hydronium ions, H 3 O + , in a rapid successive reaction of H + with water. There are no free protons  ( H + )  in aqueous solutions.  However, in order to simplify notation, we frequently 
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  Both the H 3 O and/or OH -  ions are obtained via an  association reaction. Lewis theory of acids and bases
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Pure water H O H O K w H O OH 2 2 3 + + + -  Since the concentration of water in aqueous media is considered one, K w is the equilibrium constant for the above reaction:
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An acid relatively weak in water (small K a ) may be almost completely dissociated in liquid ammonia or dimethylamine (stronger proton acceptors or stronger bases than water). Note! A substance that can behave either as an acid or Water is amphiprotic : it behaves as acid or base depending on the reaction partner.
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The formula: Example : What is the pH of a 1.0
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