10_AB_equilibria_1_web - ACIDBASEEQUILIBRIA Outline:...

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ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA Outline: Preliminary remarks Volumetric methods (223) Brønsted’s theory Water Categories of acids and bases Salts Weak acids and bases…. .
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Predominantly aqueous environment containing acids, bases or salts. (Favorable conditions for a dissociation reaction in which ions are formed from neutral precursors.) Brønsted’s (the Brønsted and Lowry ) theory Numerous applications, including those in volumetric (titrimetry) analysis (acid-base titration).
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Acid-base titration : a chemical reaction between analyte: acid or base and titrant: base or acid. Analyte: acid or base Titrant: base or acid. The titration curve, definition: The titration curve visualizes the progress of titration and represents a functional relationship between the solution pH and the volume of the titrant ( V t ), or the titration fraction, f . f = the ratio of moles of titrant added to moles of analyte initially present. TITRATIONS vs. the 223 class:
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0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 Titration curve of a 0.100 M solution of strong acid with 0.100 M solution of NaOH. pH titration fraction, f
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Equivalence point in titration is reached when the amount of the added titrant is chemically equivalent to the amount of analyte in the sample. This is a theoretical point that cannot be determined experimentally. Instead, we determine the end point , a physical change associated with condition of equivalence. The volume difference between the equivalence point and the end point must be small! The difference in such a volume is the titration error .
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0 0.5 1 1.5 2 4 6 8 10 12 Titration curve of a 0.100 M solution of acetic acid (K a =1.76 × 10-5) with 0.100 M solution of NaOH. f pH
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0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 Titration curve of a 0.100 M solution of strong acid with 0.100 M solution of NaOH. f pH
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0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2 4 6 8 10 Titration curve of a 0.100 M solution of weak base (trimethylamine; K a1 =1.58 × 10 -10 ; or K b =6.33 × 10 -5 ) with 0.100 M solution of HCl. f pH
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0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 Titration curve of a 0.100 M solution of strong base with 0.100 M solution of HCl. f pH
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Volumetric methods Volumetric methods Volumetry: precise measurements of a volume in Analytical Chemistry Titration : adding controlled amounts of titrant to a studied solution Titrant: a chemical substance reacting with analyte usually used in a form of a standard solution.
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY 222 taught by Professor Wieckowski during the Spring '10 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

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10_AB_equilibria_1_web - ACIDBASEEQUILIBRIA Outline:...

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