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11-Redox_1_web - GRADES (minimumaverage60pts (unlesstheymay...

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GRADES
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“Students who will receive B (minimum average  60 pts)  or higher grades from  AVERAGE all three partial exams,   will not have to take the final exam (unless they may  wish to change the grade upwards, e.g., from B or B+ or  from A or to A+, etc).”  The final exam will be cumulative.
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Polyprotic buffers (fractional composition diagrams, o- phosphoric acid (for exam II):   Polyprotic buffer is (for us) a buffer made from a  polyprotic acid that  exhibits large difference between the  successive ionization constants.     Such buffer is treated as if it was made from  corresponding monoprotic acid/base system.      Meaning: the diprotic buffer can be treated as a mixture of  two different weak acids ( or bases ) and their conjugate  bases ( acids ).     Again, they need to exhibit a large difference between the  successive ionization constants:
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REDOX REACTIONS, including REDOX  TITRATION;  Harris, pp. 279- 392   In  contrast  to  acid-base  reactions,  redox  reactions  involve  an  exchange  of  electrons  rather  than  protons.    (Standard  conditions.)  Note!   Redox  couples  may  involve  some  Brønsted’s  acid-base  couples. Homogeneous redox reactions occurring in the single phase. Key example : Cerium (IV) cations react with ferrous cations:  Ce 4+  + Fe 2+  Ce 3+  + Fe 3+                          (1)        Ce 4+  is transformed (reduced) to Ce 3+  and Fe 2+  is transformed  (oxidized) to Fe 3+ . Redox reaction between two conjugate redox  systems.
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Conjugate acid-base and redox theory Richard A. Pacer J. Chem. Educ. , 1973, 50 (3), p 178 DOI: 10.1021/ed050p178
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     Ce 4+ +Fe 2+      Ce 3+ +Fe 3+                             (2) Electrons  are  transferred  from  one  system,  Fe 2+ ,  to  After the reaction stops, the system is in equilibrium  with an equilibrium constant K 
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