UO2eyad - ABSTRACT: Nowadays there are no chemical plant...

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ABSTRACT: Nowadays there are no chemical plant without a distillation column.The continuous distillation column of a binary mixture was studied in this experiment. The flow rates of the feed, distillate and bottom stream was found out to be 0.8743, 0.3668 and 0.4672 LPM respectively. The reflux ratio was found to be equal to 0.6543. Furthermore, the concentration of ethanol was found from the GC at the feed, top and bottom product as 0.1403, 0.6934 and 0.02261 mol% respectively. Then by using McCabe Thiele Diagram it has been found that the theoretical number of stages 10.3 trays where the optimum feed location was at tray 7. The actual quality of the feed stream was equal 0.571 and the minimum reflux ration was equal to 0.5907. INTRODUCTION: Distillation is a thermal separation process where a liquid consisting of two or more components is separated by preferentially vaporizing the more volatile components. Multi-stage operation is common practice as a means to achieve high purity of the more volatile and of the high boiling compounds. The most commonly used method in the design of Distillation column is by McCabe-Thiele technique. This method is a graphical based on vapor-liquid equilibrium data and a mass balance. The main assumption made in the McCabe-Thiele method is that there must be equi-molar overflow through the tower between the feed inlet and the top tray and between the feed inlet and the bottom tray. In this experiment, a binary mixture of ethanol and water is fed to a distillation column. The steam was used in the reboiler and the feed preheater as heating agent. The condenser in the top was used to condense the overhead product, and some of the condensed amount was refluxed back to the column to increase the purity of the ethanol on the top of the column.
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McCabe-Thiele diagram and to determine the theoretical number of stages. To find out the overall plates efficiency of the column. Theoretical Background: From the simple mass balance the operating lines in the McCabe- Thiele plot can be derived and the following equation can be found: The stripping section equation is: While the enriching section equation is followed: The relative amount of liquid and vapor in the enriching and stripping section will depend on feed conditions; feed can be a liquid, a vapor or a liquid – vapor mixture. The feed quality is defined through: The quality line or q – line in vapor liquid equilibrium diagram is given through: D m m m m Dx x L y V + = + + 1 1 D L V m m + = + 1 D m m m m m x V D x V L y 1 1 1 + + + + = (1) 1 1 1 + + + - = m w m m m m V Wx x V L y (2) 1 1 1 1 1 + + + = + = + + + R
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UO2eyad - ABSTRACT: Nowadays there are no chemical plant...

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