BIS2C%20MT1%20%20Study%20Guide - BIS2C Winter 2010 Midterm...

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Winter 2010 Midterm 1 Study guide part I Understanding trees, tree-based thinking, and phylogenetic applications Basic concepts What is a phylogenetic tree ? What are the basic elements of a tree ( terminal taxa , internal nodes , root node , etc.)? Distinguishing between cladograms , phylograms and chronograms . In what way is a tree a simplification of a more complex evolutionary process? How does a monophyletic group (=clade) differ from a non-monophyletic group ( paraphyletic group or polyphyletic group )? What is a synapomorphy ? Why are monophyletic groups characterized by synapomorphies? Distinguish between convergence , reversal and homology . What is the relationship between phylogeny and classification ? Define the following: sister groups , ingroups and outgroups . Understand why branch rotation does not change meaning of the tree. Be able to determine if two trees are equivalent. Reconstructing phylogenetic trees Remember that trees are hypotheses . They are inferred from the similarities that are observed among taxa. Understand the components of a character-taxon data matrix . Distinguish between rooted and unrooted trees . Recall the basic procedure for finding/searching for the most parsimonious tree(s): 1. Ignore parsimony-uninformative characters. 2. Draw possible trees. 3. For each informative character count the minimum number of steps required on each tree. 4. Sum over all characters to get the “score” (number of steps) for each tree. 5. The most parsimonious tree(s) is/are the one(s) with lowest score. 6.
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BIS2C%20MT1%20%20Study%20Guide - BIS2C Winter 2010 Midterm...

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