AP Euro Chapter 22 Study Aid

AP Euro Chapter 22 Study Aid - Chapter 22 The Revolution in...

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Chapter 22: The Revolution in Energy and Industry Industrial Revolution The burst of major inventions and technical changes in certain industries Changed patterns of work, transformed social class structure, altered the international balance of political power, helped people gain higher standards of living Began 1780s in Britain and ~1815 in Continental Europe Brought about rapid population growth Industrial Revolution in Britain Origins- Expanding Atlantic Economy of the 18 th Century o Colonial Empire provided a growing market for British goods o No tariffs within the country to hinder trade Water Transportation System o Provided easy movement of coal and iron deposits Agricultural Revolution o Advanced farming = more crops = lower prices = more extra money for people Created greater demand for manufactured goods o Enclosure Revolution - created a potential industrial labor force out of cottage workers and agricultural laborers Effective Central Bank + well-developed credit markets Stable and Predictable Government o Allowed for a free market Factories- Problem: Greater demand of goods revealed the limitations of the Putting-Out System Solution: New inventions and Factories Factories marked the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution Constant shortage of thread in the textile industry led to demands for a better spinning wheel o James Hargreaves - created the Spinning Jenny o Richard Arkwright - created the Water Frame Required large, specialized mills due to the demand for power Improved by Samuel Crompton in 1790 o Result: explosion in the cotton industry Cotton goods became cheaper Body Linen (undergarments) became common among all classes o Edmund Cartwright - created the Power Loom in 1785 Early factory conditions = unsatisfactory
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o Reluctance to work in them led to Child Labor Long hours, harsh discipline, brutal punishments, etc. Harsh child exploitation led to reforms and humanitarian attitudes Energy Problems- From the Middle Ages to the 18 th Century, Western civilization relied on humans, plants, and animals for power. o No matter how hard people worked, the energy really wasn’t enough Wood-Fuel became inadequate o Wood = primary source of heat for all homes and industries o Wood = fuel to produce iron o Due to Population Growth, Britain’s forests were replaced with fields of grain and hay leading to a lack of wood Coal became a new supply of energy o Became fuel for early steam-engines Early models invented by Thomas Savery (1698) and Thomas Newcomen (1705) = inefficient and costly o Coal mines often flooded and required pumping Steam Engines- James Watt - Scottish inventor who created a more efficient steam engine in 1769 o British economy allowed for its invention Provided skilled mechanics to create precision parts Found investment from a wealthy English toymaker MOST fundamental advance in technology of the Industrial Revolution
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AP Euro Chapter 22 Study Aid - Chapter 22 The Revolution in...

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