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AP Euro Chapter 24 Study Aid

AP Euro Chapter 24 Study Aid - Chapter 24 Life in 19th...

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Chapter 24: Life in 19 th Century Urban Society Urbanization Split Opinions: o City = awful place of suffering for the poor o City = place of increased opportunity compared to preindustrial life The Growth of Cities- Cities = centers of government, culture, and large scale commerce Deplorable Living Conditions o Rapid spread of infectious diseases and lack of medical knowledge Extremely unsanitary conditions (people literally lived in Shit) Open drains and sewers, primitive toilets, etc. o Pervasive poverty o Overcrowding Rise of industry = new factories = new opportunities for work o Lack of Housing Living quarters and homes were cramped and crowded o Lack of public transportation Health and Bacterial Revolution- Edwin Chadwick- reforming commissioner o Benthamite- followers of Jeremy Bentham’s philosophy All public problems should be dealt with on a rational and scientific basis o Believed disease could be prevented by cleaning up the urban environment o Believed that excrement from outhouses could be carried off by water through sewers at less than 1/20 th the cost of hand-removal o Became the basis of Britain’s first public health law Miasmatic Theory - prevailing belief that people contracted disease when they breathed bad odors (incorrect) Germ Theory - specific diseases were caused by specific living organisms (germs) o Discovered by Louis Pasteur Pasteurization - suppressing the growth of organisms through heat Robert Koch - first to study pure cultures of harmful bacteria Joseph Lister - English surgeon o Developed the Antiseptic Principle - a chemical disinfectant applied to a wound would destroy the life of the floating particles Great Silent Revolution - Reduction in death rates due to the sophisticated public health movement along with the bacterial revolution
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Urban Planning and Public Transportation- Urban Planning = Key feature of improving the quality of urban life Revived and promoted in France under Napoleon III Baron Georges Haussman - the planner of the “new” Paris o Created parks and tree-lined boulevards o Demolished the worst slums and replaced them with better housing o Improved the sewer and fresh water system Zoning expropriation laws - allowed the majority of land owners in a given quarter of the city to impose major street or sanitation improvements against a reluctant minority Development of mass public transportation o Private companies’ horse-drawn streetcars + Electric streetcars from America o Allowed for people to expand housing to outlying areas of the city The Social Classes All people benefitted from improvements in urban living conditions Differences between social classes remained huge Social Structure- Industrialization = substantial increase in the average person’s standard of living Industrialization did NOT eliminate poverty or close the rich-poor gap New social groups created o Society
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AP Euro Chapter 24 Study Aid - Chapter 24 Life in 19th...

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